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 Definition: A group of eighteenth-century French writers and philosophers, including men such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Diderot 

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Presentation on theme: " Definition: A group of eighteenth-century French writers and philosophers, including men such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Diderot "— Presentation transcript:

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4  Definition: A group of eighteenth-century French writers and philosophers, including men such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Diderot  Significance: › 1) emphasized the supremacy of human reason › 2) supported freedom of expression and social, economic, and political reform › 3) helped inspire the American, French, and Latin American Revolutions (Spodek 533) AO

5  Definition: a hierarchal division in France consisting of 3 main Estates › 1 st Estate: Clergy › 2 nd Estate: Nobility › 3 rd Esate: everyone else (including the bourgeoisie, merchants, etc.)  Significance: › 1) revolt of the Third Estate (wanted to put an end to the privileges of the clergy and nobility)  leads to the “National Assembly” and the “Oath of the Tennis Court” and eventually the drafting of a new constitution for France (constitutional monarchy) (Spodek 540) AO

6  Definition: the leading urban professional and commercial classes of the Third Estate  Significance: › 1) The French Revolution began as a result of the King’s need for funds  King Louis XVI looks to the Third Estate for these funds  More specifically the bourgeoisie because of their increasing commercial power and influence, not to mention the greater amount of wealth that this group had › involved in the revolt of the Third Estate against the nobles and clergy of the other 2 Estates (Spodek 540) AO

7  Definition: A technique launched by the Committee of Public Safety, started by the French Convention, in an attempt to govern during international and civil warfare against “counter-revolutionaries”  Significance: › 1) brutal treatment of the French people (execution, drowning, etc.) › 2) Desire to wage war- instituted a levee en masses/military draft › 3) mob inspired violence throughout France (Spodek 543) AO

8  Definition: A group of eighteenth-century French writers and philosophers, including men such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Diderot  Significance: › 1) emphasized the supremacy of human reason › 2) supported freedom of expression and social, economic, and political reform › 3) helped inspire the American, French, and Latin American Revolutions (Spodek 533) AO

9 Anna Olson AO

10 (Spodek 545 – 547) Who: Napoleon introduced the principal legal and administrative reforms of the revolution. Napoleon also established Code Napoleon (Civil Code) in In the same year he became emperor of France. He was able to end the French Revolution through military power as well as law and order. Through this, Napoleon was also able to start Nationalism. He ruled from 1799 – So What: With Napoleon’s reform put into play in France, he was able to bring a temporary peace in France and his conquest in different regions expanded France. He brought some equality in his land with the civil code and was able to reach a concordat with the pope, ending the conflict between the state and church. However, due to overconquest, Napoleon lost and was exiled. Brian Jing Napoleon of France Source: com/2009/03/napoleon_great.jp g Picture is an active link to its source

11 (Spodek 540 – 543) Who: King Louis XVI was king of France and was able to establish General Estates in the year of Louis was later married to Mary Antoinette which brought public humiliation to the household of France. King Louis XVI also solicited funds by convening leaders of the French people through the Estates. The wealth Louis wanted to gain control of was the first two estates and the bourgeoisie. So What: Due to the dislike of the Third Estate, a new constitution was established in the Tennis Court Oath. The constitution said that the people would continuing fighting until a new constitution would be made. It was due to Louis that sparked the French Revolution. Brian Jing King Louis XVI posing Picture is an active link to its source

12 (Spodek 551 – 553) Who: Simon Bolivar was a Creole elite of the Latin American Revolution who studied philosophes in Europe. In 1807, Bolivar joined movements of independence that swept the region undercutting Spanish authority. In 1813, Bolivar brought Venezuelan independence from his capture of Caracas. In 1819, Bolivar established the republic of Columbia. In 1825, after meaning feats involving conquest, Bolivar was elected president of Brazil. So What: Bolivar’s conquest of so many South American regions was ultimately able to unify Latin America. Brian Jing A confident Simon Bolivar Picture is an active link to its source

13 (Spodek 553) Who: Father Miguel Hidalgo led the first wave of Mexico’s revolt until he was executed in Hidalgo wanted to assert special privileges and landholdings of the church. The early Mexican independence was inspired by the incipient “liberation theology” of priests like Hidalgo. So What: Mexico was able to gain independence in 1821 partially from Hidalgo’s efforts. His movement challenged the authority, Creoles, to lessen peasant poverty. Brian Jing A Portrait of Father Miguel Hidalgo Picture is an active link to its source

14 1. Religious Discrimination is suppressed: 1. French Revolution surpasses the British in creating freedom for all faiths (like Jewish people) so that they are allowed to be citizens. 2. The National Convention deletes slavery: 1. Even though Napoleon reinstates slavery, it shows that there are clear distinctions between color and race 3. Equality for males occurs 4. Revolution provides inspirations for others 1. United States 2. Haiti (Spodek 557) © 2009 by Allison Wang

15 1. The Terror destroys many people (Spodek 543). 1. The Committee of Public Safety executes about 40,000 people and established a military draft of amount 800,000 men. 2. There is still much class antagonism. 1. Class antagonism can be seen between the nobility and the third estate at the most. 2. Although the Catholic clergy were alientated during the time of the Committee’s Robespierre in 1794 (Spodek 544). (Spodek 557) © 2009 by Allison Wang

16  It was the first and only successful slave revolt in history  It gave hope and inspiration to other slaves at the time  Britain and other countries like the US started abolishing the slave trade in fear of further slave revolts. (Spodek 548,550) © 2009 by Allison Wang

17  Even though Bolivar was able to conquer much of South America – Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina – he still feels dissatisfied.  His dissatisfaction results from the warfare amongst his generals for the independence of their unit leads to Bolivar’s stricter ruling. His previous supporters don’t like his ruling so he barely escaped an assassination attempt on him. After this, he returned to Europe feeling defeated and disillusioned. (Spodek 537) © 2009 by Allison Wang

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19 Legend: Nation City Mexico Haiti Cuba Havana © 2009 by Allison Wang

20 Legend: Nation Brazil Peru © 2009 by Allison Wang

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22 © 2009 by Allison Wang, Brian Jing, Anna Olson


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