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+ AP US History Chapter 9: The Old South, 1790-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "+ AP US History Chapter 9: The Old South, 1790-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 + AP US History Chapter 9: The Old South, 1790-1850

2 + The Southeast The Chesapeake region was one of plantation farms Main crop was tobacco, but eventually, the soil was destroyed, driving many to move to Kentucky or Tennessee Began to grow corn, wheat, and raise livestock after tobacco profits fell As the economy diversified, so did labor for slaves Men still tended to fields and farm work Women did many things, such as housemaids, candlemaking, sewing, etc. The Lowcountry of Georgia and South Carolina expanded slavery into rice production Very labor intensive Used the task system to employ slaves, assigning a task to individuals

3 + The Deep South and “King Cotton” Cotton was a very labor intensive, unprofitable, but important, crop prior to the 1790s Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793, which separated the cotton from the sticky seeds Slaves that could clean one pound a day were now able to clean 50 pounds Rather than using less slaves, more slaves were employed to grow more cotton, thus making more profit After the War of 1812, widespread cotton cultivation occurred throughout the South International slave trade ended in 1808, but interstate slave trade rapidly increased Southern cotton plantations employed gang labor Groups of slaves worked under an overseer growing cotton only Worked long hours, did not enjoy any free time like those under the task system

4 + The Yeoman Farmer Only about 1/3 of whites in the south owned slaves by 1830, with the number decreasing more as time progressed Cotton was not profitable on small farms Most were too poor to buy slaves or good farmland Yeoman farmers grew livestock and produced small plots that mostly provided for the family Yeoman farmers lived in tight-knit neighborhoods Depended on each other to provide basic needs Debts were paid back through goods or labor Lived without most luxuries

5 + Slave/Master Relations The plantation was only as successful as the relationship between the slaves and master Rules were strict and the master was the ultimate authority However, there was some give and take to give incentive to produce Slaves lived in tight-knit family communities, but often were broken apart during slave auctions Threat of sale was used often to encourage obedience Marriages were respected by masters, but not by law Slaves created their own customs, culture and religion Religion blended old African traditions with modern practices Gave slaves a sense of historical belonging

6 + Slave Revolts Rebellion and escape attempts common, but some outright revolts also occurred amongst the slave population Gabriel’s Revolt Led by a slave blacksmith named Gabriel Planned to united slaves to overtake the city of Richmond Weather and slave betrayal ended the rebellion Denmark Vesey’s Revolt, 1822 Slaves would take the city of Charleston, SC Ships would be taken and the escape would be on Slave betrayal foiled the plot Nat Turner Revolt, 1831 Nat Turner, a preacher, had a vision of leading a slave revolt Killed 55 whites in the process Eventually, the revolt was put down, but scared whites

7 + Slavery and the Southern Economy By 1860, slavery was the economy of the South The South did not industrialize like the North Did not take advantage of new technology Relied on goods from within the South, did not purchase many goods from the North or abroad Internal improvements were slow or non-existent Railroad mileage much less than that of the North Relied heavily on riverboats floated downstream from the North


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