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Chapter Intro 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia What might be some effects of imperialism?

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1 Chapter Intro 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia What might be some effects of imperialism?

2 Section 1-Main Idea The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Through the new imperialism, Westerners controlled vast territories, exploited native populations, and opened markets for European products.

3 Section 1-Key Terms Content Vocabulary imperialism racism protectorate indirect rule direct rule Academic Vocabulary exploitexport

4 Vocab1 imperialism the extension of a nation’s power over other lands

5 Vocab2 racism the belief that race determines a person’s traits and capabilities

6 Vocab3 protectorate a political unit that depends on another government for its protection

7 Vocab4 indirect rule colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status

8 Vocab5 direct rule colonial government in which local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the mother country

9 Vocab6 exploit to make use of meanly or unfairly for one’s own advantage

10 Vocab7 export to send a product or service for sale to another country

11 Section 1-Key Terms People and Places Singapore Burma Thailand King Mongkut King Chulalongkorn Commodore George Dewey Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo

12 Section 1 The New Imperialism Under new imperialism, European countries began to seek additional territory.

13 Section 1 In the 1880s, European states began to seek territory in Asia and Africa. Imperialism was used to justify this expansion for new markets and resources. Under this “new imperialism,” they sought direct control of territories, not just trading posts. The New Imperialism (cont.)‏ Imperialism in Southeast Asia, 1900

14 Section 1 Motives for Imperialism: –Economic The New Imperialism (cont.)‏ Capitalist states required resources and markets for finished goods. –Rivalries European nations wanted to gain an economic advantage in an industry.

15 Section 1 –Respect Colonies were a source of national prestige and a symbol of a great nation. The New Imperialism (cont.)‏ –Social Darwinism Racism drove some people to believe that they were better than others. –Moral People wanted to bring Christianity and “civilization” to colonized societies.

16 Section 1 Colonial Takeover Rivalries for overseas territories led to Western dominance of Southeast Asia.

17 Section 1 By 1900 virtually the entire region of Southeast Asia was under Western control. Britain Colonial Takeover (cont.)‏ –In 1819 Great Britain founded a colony at the tip of the Malay Peninsula called Singapore. –Singapore was a major stopping point for traffic going to and from China. Major Regions of European Control

18 Section 1 –Britain also sought an overland pass between India and China. –Although the difficult terrain made this venture fail, British activities in Burma caused the eventual fall of the Burmese monarchy. Colonial Takeover (cont.)‏ Major Regions of European Control

19 Section 1 France –France was able to colonize Vietnam by making it a French protectorate. –France would later control Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos in a region called the Union of French Indochina. Colonial Takeover (cont.)‏ Major Regions of European Control

20 Section 1 Thailand –Thailand, under the remarkable leadership of King Mongkut and his successor King Chulalongkorn, was able to maintain its independence. –Thailand acted as a buffer between British Burma and French Indochina. Colonial Takeover (cont.)‏

21 Section 1 The United States –In 1898, the United States naval fleet under Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, allowing the Americans to colonize the Philippines. –Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of the Philippine rebellion against both the Spanish and American colonizers. His forces were defeated by the Americans after three years of bloody warfare. Colonial Takeover (cont.)‏

22 Section 1 Colonial Regimes European countries controlled the governments and economies of their colonies in Southeast Asia.

23 Section 1 Two methods of governing the colonies were utilized by the Western powers: direct and indirect rule. Indirect rule Colonial Regimes (cont.)‏ –Local rulers were allowed to maintain their authority. –Access to natural resources was easier.

24 Section 1 –Cheaper because fewer officials were needed –Affected local culture less Colonial Regimes (cont.)‏

25 Section 1 Direct rule –European officials replaced local authorities and governed. –Used by French and British whenever local peoples resisted colonial rule Colonial Regimes (cont.)‏

26 Section 1 The colonial powers stressed exporting of raw materials and used the local populace as the labor force for the colonizers. Colonial governments brought benefits as well. Highways, railroads, and other structures were built, and modern economic systems were introduced. Colonial Regimes (cont.)‏

27 Section 1 Resistance to Colonial Rule Native peoples had varying levels of success resisting colonial rule in Southeast Asia.

28 Section 1 The colonized peoples of Southeast Asia resisted colonial rule using a myriad of methods. Resistance from the existing ruling class, or government officials loyal to the current regime, were the first to fight the westerners. Peasant revolts offered another method of resistance, as farmers and peasants driven off the land vented their anger at the foreign invaders. Resistance to Colonial Rule (cont.)‏

29 Section 1 The most successful revolts came from nationalistic movements. Started by educated, middle-class urban dwellers, these movements generally transformed from defending traditional systems to nationalistic activities. Resistance to Colonial Rule (cont.)‏

30 Section 1-End

31 Chapter Intro 2 Empire Building in Africa What reasons might the Europeans have had for dominating and colonizing Africa?

32 Section 2-Main Idea The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Virtually all of Africa was under European rule by 1900.

33 Section 2-Key Terms Content Vocabulary annexed indigenous Academic Vocabulary uncharted traditions

34 Vocab8 annexed incorporated territory into an existing political unit, such as a city or country

35 Vocab9 indigenous native to a region

36 Vocab10 uncharted not mapped; unknown

37 Vocab11 traditions established customs of a people

38 Section 2-Key Terms People Muhammad Ali David Livingstone Henry Stanley Zulu

39 Section 2 West Africa and North Africa European countries exercised increasing control over West Africa and North Africa, especially once the Suez Canal was completed.

40 Section 2 Before 1880, Europeans controlled little of Africa. Between 1880 and 1990, Europeans placed virtually all of Africa under European rule. As slave trade in Africa declined, other raw materials, such as peanuts, timbers, hides, and palm olives, were sought after by Europeans. West Africa and North Africa (cont.)‏ African States and Kingdoms, c. 1880

41 Section 2 In 1874 Great Britain annexed the west coastal states as the Gold Coast and made Nigeria a protectorate. African governments in West Africa began to lose their independence. In Egypt, an Ottoman military officer named Muhammad Ali seized power in 1805 and modernized the state’s army, educational system, and industries. West Africa and North Africa (cont.)‏ Imperialism in Africa, 1880–1914

42 Section 2 The French built the Suez Canal with Egyptian labor, linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Britain, seizing the opportunity to gain access to India quicker, tried to gain as much control as possible over the Suez Canal area. West Africa and North Africa (cont.)‏ Suez Canal

43 Section 2 Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914. Britain also gained control of the Sudan, south of Egypt, in 1898. France established control of the North African states of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco in the early twentieth century. West Africa and North Africa (cont.)‏

44 Section 2 Italy seized Turkish Tripoli (Libya) but was defeated in an invasion of Ethiopia in 1896. This humiliating defeat led the Italians to try again in 1911. West Africa and North Africa (cont.)‏

45 Section 2 Central and East Africa European powers competed for colonies in Central Africa and East Africa.

46 Section 2 Central Africa was an uncharted, tropical region. British explorer David Livingstone wanted to find a river that would open Central Africa to European commerce and Christianity. In the 1870s, Henry Stanley continued the work of Livingstone and mapped the Congo River region. Central and East Africa (cont.)‏

47 Section 2 King Leopold of Belgium claimed the Congo region, and established a Belgium presence in Central Africa. In East Africa, Britain and Germany fought over territory in East Africa. Britain sought to connect its colonies in South Africa and Egypt. Central and East Africa (cont.)‏

48 Section 2 Germany was under pressure to gain colonies by the German people. Portugal and Belgium also sought territory in East Africa. In 1884 and 1885, the European powers met at the Berlin Conference to settle conflicting claims. No African delegates were present at the conference. Central and East Africa (cont.)‏

49 Section 2 South Africa European powers quickly came to dominate the region of South Africa.

50 Section 2 In South Africa, the British and Dutch fought for control of the region. The Boers, or Afrikaners, were descendents of Dutch settlers who had lived in South Africa since the 1600s. The British seized lands from the Dutch in the Napoleonic Wars. South Africa (cont.)‏

51 Section 2 The Boers detested British rule and moved from the coastal areas in a journey known as the Great Trek. They placed the indigenous peoples in reservations. The Boers frequently battled the Zulu people, and the skilled leader Shaka established a powerful Zulu Empire. The British finally conquered the Zulu in the late 1800s. South Africa (cont.)‏

52 Section 2 British policy in South Africa was largely influenced by Cecil Rhodes, a proponent of British expansion. Rhodes founded diamond and gold companies, but his interaction with the Dutch led to the Boer War. From 1899 to 1902, the British and the Boers fought the Boer War. The Boers successfully fought the British using guerilla war tactics. South Africa (cont.)‏

53 Section 2 The British put 120,000 Boer women and children in detention camps where nearly 20,000 of them died of starvation. The Dutch surrendered, and the Independent Union of South Africa was established in 1910. South Africa (cont.)‏

54 Section 2 Effects of Imperialism Using direct or indirect rule, European nations exploited Africa, and their governance stimulated African nationalism.

55 Section 2 The concept of indirect rule was favored by the Europeans as it was cheaper and easier to implement. Local African rulers simply enforced European decisions. Indirect rule had the unfortunate effect of keeping younger and talented African political leaders out of power. Effects of Imperialism (cont.)‏

56 Section 2 Most other European nations favored direct rule. Some nations, like the French, attempted to assimilate the local peoples, destroying local and traditional culture. The rise of African nationalism began in the early 1900s. Led by young, generally Western-educated Africans, the movement took the ideas of the West and attempted to apply them to the African states. Effects of Imperialism (cont.)‏

57 Section 2 Lower class Africans worked on plantations or factories owned by foreigners. The middle class had better conditions but were still only eligible for menial jobs in the government and business, earning less than their European counterparts. Africans of all classes faced condescending relationships with Europeans. Clubs, schools, churches, and other social institutions were segregated. Effects of Imperialism (cont.)‏

58 Section 2-End

59 Chapter Intro 3 British Rule in India Would it be difficult for our own democratic government to deny equal rights to any group?

60 Section 3-Main Idea The BIG Idea Struggle for Rights The British brought stability to India but destroyed native industries and degraded Indians.

61 Section 3-Key Terms Content Vocabulary sepoys viceroy Academic Vocabulary civil estate

62 Vocab12 sepoy an Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company’s interests in the region

63 Vocab13 viceroy a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch

64 Vocab14 civil involving the general public or civic affairs

65 Vocab15 estate one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution

66 Section 3-Key Terms People, Places, and Events Kanpur Queen Victoria Bombay Indian National Congress Mohandas Gandhi Rabindranath Tagore

67 Section 3 The Sepoy Mutiny Mistrust and cultural differences between the British and Indians led to violent conflict.

68 Section 3 As the power of the Moguls declined, a commercial company, the British East India Company, was given the right to become actively involved in India’s political and military affairs. To rule India, the British East India Company hired its own soldiers, including sepoys, and built forts. The Sepoy Mutiny (cont.)‏ Troops Employed in British India, 1857

69 Section 3 In 1857, a growing distrust of the British and rumor that the rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat led to a rebellion of the Indian sepoys. Atrocities were terrible on both sides as evidenced at Kanpur, where Indians massacred 200 defenseless women and children. The Sepoy Mutiny (cont.)‏ Troops Employed in British India, 1857

70 Section 3 Within a year, the British and Indians loyal to Britain suppressed the rebellion. The Sepoy Mutiny (cont.)‏ As a result of the mutiny, the British Parliament transferred powers of the East India Company directly to the British government. Queen Victoria took the title Empress of India in 1876.

71 Section 3 British Colonial Rule The British brought order and stability to India, but they also hurt India’s economy and degraded the Indian people.

72 Section 3 To aid in directly ruling India, the British appointed an official known as a viceroy. Positive Effects of British Colonization British Colonial Rule (cont.)‏ –Colonization brought order and stability to India. –An efficient government bureaucracy was established. British Possessions in India, 1858–1914

73 Section 3 –A new school system was set up using the English language. –Roads and railroads were built. –A telegraph system and a postal service were introduced. British Colonial Rule (cont.)‏ British Possessions in India, 1858–1914

74 Section 3 Negative Effects of British Colonization –British economic pursuits brought poverty and hardship to Indians. –Access to resources and local industries were destroyed. –Local tax collectors increased taxes and forced peasants to become tenants. British Colonial Rule (cont.)‏ British Possessions in India, 1858–1914

75 Section 3 –Farmers were encouraged to switch from food production to cotton production, limiting the food supply for the growing population. –British rule was very degrading and insensitive to Indian culture. British Colonial Rule (cont.)‏ British Possessions in India, 1858–1914

76 Section 3 Indian Nationalists The British presence in India led to an Indian independence movement.

77 Section 3 The first Indian nationalists were upper- class and English-educated, and came from urban areas such as Madras (Chennai), Calcutta (Kolkata), and Bombay (Mumbai). Although most preferred reform to revolution, the slow pace of change convinced many that they would have to rely on themselves for change. Indian Nationalists (cont.)‏

78 Section 3 In 1885, a small group of Indians met in Bombay and formed the Indian National Congress (INC). The goal of the INC was a share in the governing process. In 1915, a young Hindu named Mohandas Gandhi used his experiences in British South Africa to become a leader in the Indian movement for independence. Indian Nationalists (cont.)‏

79 Section 3 Gandhi utilized a non-violent method of resistance to attain his goals of improving the lives of the poor and gaining independence for India. Indian Nationalists (cont.)‏

80 Section 3 Colonial Indian Culture British rule sparked renewed interest among Indians in their own culture and history.

81 Section 3 One facet of British colonialism was a cultural awakening in India. The British opened a college in Calcutta and a local publishing house. Soon books became more available to the population of India. Indian novelists and poets began writing historical romances and epics. Colonial Indian Culture (cont.)‏

82 Section 3 Newspapers, written in regional Indian languages, provided an effective means of conveying nationalist ideals to lower- middle-class Indians. The most influential Indian author was Rabindranath Tagore, who was a successful writer, poet, social reformer, educator, singer, painter, spiritual leader, and spokesman for the moral concerns of his age. Colonial Indian Culture (cont.)‏

83 Section 3 Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913 and put music to a poem that became Indian nationalism’s first anthem. Colonial Indian Culture (cont.)‏

84 Section 3-End

85 Chapter Intro 4 Nation Building in Latin America What are some reasons why people take part in revolutions?

86 Section 4-Main Idea The BIG Idea Self-Determination Latin American countries gained their independence but became economically dependent on Western powers.

87 Section 4-Key Terms Content Vocabulary peninsulares creoles mestizos caudillos cash crops Academic Vocabulary intervention redistribution

88 Vocab16 peninsulare a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe

89 Vocab17 creole a person of European descent born in Latin America and living there permanently

90 Vocab18 mestizo a person of mixed European and Native American descent

91 Vocab19 caudillo in post-revolutionary Latin America, a strong leader who ruled chiefly by military force, usually with the support of the landed elite

92 Vocab20 cash crop a crop that is grown for sale rather than for consumption

93 Vocab21 intervention involvement in a situation to alter the outcome

94 Vocab22 redistribution alteration in the distribution of; reallocation

95 Section 4-Key Terms People, Places, and Events José de San Martín Simón Bolívar Monroe Doctrine Antonio López de Santa Anna Benito Juárez Puerto Rico Panama Canal Haiti Nicaragua

96 Section 4 Nationalist Revolts Revolutionary ideas in Latin America were sparked by the successes of revolutions in North America.

97 Section 4 In Latin American society, peninsulares controlled the political and economic systems of the colonies. Creoles resented peninsulares and favored the revolutionary ideals of equality. A slave revolt in Hispaniola led to the formation of Haiti in 1804. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏ European Colonies in Latin America

98 Section 4 In Mexico, a priest named Miguel Hidalgo roused the local Native Americans and mestizos to free themselves of Spanish control. In 1821, Mexico declared its independence and became a republic in 1823. Two men, known as the “Liberators of South America,” were heavily influenced by events in Europe and set South America on the path of freedom. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏

99 Section 4 José de San Martín of Argentina fought the Spaniards and liberated Argentina in 1810 before crossing the Andes Mountains and liberating Chile in 1817. Simón Bolívar, who had liberated Venezuela, arrived in Peru and helped San Martín’s forces liberate Peru in 1824. In 1822, the prince regent of Brazil declared independence from Portugal. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏

100 Section 4 In 1823, the Central American states declared their independence and eventually became the states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. By the end of 1824, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile had all gained independence from Spain. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏

101 Section 4 Latin American independence movements faced a major threat from European powers who favored the use of soldiers to restore Spanish control in Latin America. American president James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warning against European intervention in Latin America, and guaranteeing Latin American independence. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏

102 Section 4 The British also favored Latin American independence and used their navy to deter any European invasion of Central and South America. Nationalist Revolts (cont.)‏

103 Section 4 Nation Building After they became independent, Latin American nations faced a staggering range of problems.

104 Section 4 Most of the new nations of Latin America established republican forms of government, but soon caudillos gained power. Supported by the landed elite, the caudillos used military power to rule. Some modernized the new national states by building schools, roads, and canals. Nation Building (cont.)‏

105 Section 4 In Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna ruled Mexico from 1833 to 1855. Santa Anna misused state funds, halted reforms, and created chaos. American settlers in the Texas region revolted against Santa Anna’s dictatorial rule and won independence from Mexico in 1836. Nation Building (cont.)‏

106 Section 4 In 1845, Mexico was forced to give up nearly one-half of its land following defeat to the United States in the Mexican War. Following Santa Anna, Benito Juárez came to power. He brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including limiting the power of the military and religious tolerance. Nation Building (cont.)‏

107 Section 4 Although Latin American nations were politically independent, they were still economically dependent on the United States and Great Britain. Britain dominated trade with the Latin American nations, and the United States became the primary source of loans and investment money. Nation Building (cont.)‏

108 Section 4 Latin American economies were dependent on cash crops, and national economies were often reliant on a single cash crop. A fundamental problem of all the new Latin American nations was the domination of society by the landed elites. Landowners generally controlled the political and economic systems of the nation, and their devotion to cash crops left little tillable land for farming food products. Nation Building (cont.)‏

109 Section 4 Change in Latin America Many Latin American governments patterned their new constitutions after the United States Constitution.

110 Section 4 The United States began to intervene in Latin America by making Cuba a protectorate and annexing Puerto Rico in 1898. In 1903, President Roosevelt supported a rebellion that allowed Panama to separate from Colombia in return for the right to build the Panama Canal. Change in Latin America (cont.)‏

111 Section 4 As Americans invested in Latin America, they demanded that these investments be protected. American military forces intervened in Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In some instances, U.S. military forces stayed for decades, as in Haiti and Nicaragua, leading to Latin American resentment of North American intervention. Change in Latin America (cont.)‏

112 Section 4 In Mexico, the conservative government of Porfirio Díaz (1877–1911) was ousted by the liberal landowner, Francisco Madero. In northern Mexico, Pancho Villa’s armed bandits swept the countryside. Emiliano Zapata called for land reform, and began to redistribute the land to the masses but refused to work with Madero. Change in Latin America (cont.)‏

113 Section 4 Between 1910 and 1920, the Mexican Revolution caused great damage to the Mexican economy. In 1917, a new constitution was accepted. Mexico would be led by a president, land reform would be enacted, and foreign investment would be limited. Change in Latin America (cont.)‏

114 Section 4 The prosperity of trade after 1870 led to an emerging middle class comprised of teachers, lawyers, doctors, merchants, and businesspeople. The middle-class Latin Americans became a stabilizing force in the region, and once given the right to vote, often sided with the landed elite. Change in Latin America (cont.)‏

115 Section 4-End

116 VS 1 SOUTHEAST ASIA AND AFRICA and New Imperialism Under new imperialism, European nations came to rule virtually all of Southeast Asia and Africa by 1900. European countries controlled the economies and governments of the Asian colonies. Some Southeast Asians resisted colonial rule more successfully than others. Europeans used direct and indirect rule to exploit Africa. Resentment led to African nationalism.

117 VS 2 INDIA and New Imperialism Indian mistrust of the British and cultural differences led to the Sepoy Mutiny. After the mutiny, Britain stabilized India but hurt the economy and degraded the Indians. Resistance to British rule led to an independence movement guided by Mohandas Gandhi, which was ultimately successful.

118 VS 3 LATIN AMERICA and New Imperialism Inspired by the American and French Revolutions, Latin Americans started their own revolts for independence. Latin American nations wrote constitutions similar to the Constitution of the United States. After gaining independence, Latin American nations experienced staggering economic and political problems.

119 End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.

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