Presentation on theme: "A. What is the Age of Absolutism? The period of time during which monarchs of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and."— Presentation transcript:
A. What is the Age of Absolutism? The period of time during which monarchs of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and societies. B. What is the Divine Right Theory? The theory that stated that monarchs had a god given right to rule their nations as they wished. Jean-Joseph Mouret: Rondeau from Suite de Symphonies
Discussion Question 1 How might a ruler misuse religion when starting a war?
Discussion Question 2 What is the significance of the following quote? "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” -Lord Acton(1834–1902).
Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s. The Power of Spain
Spain at peak of grandeur with reign of Philip II One reason—stream of gold and silver from colonies in Americas With wealth came power—but gold could not solve Spain’s problems Spain under Philip II Reigned from
King Philip II devout Catholic, son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Saw himself as leader of Counter-Reformation Marriage to Queen Mary I of England was a chance to spread Catholicism Mary died before having England return to Catholic faith Religion and Revolt
Around 1500, Catholic kingdoms in Spain reconquered Muslim areas and expelled Spanish Jews and Muslims. Spain saw itself as a nation chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity from Protestant heretics. Philip championed Catholic causes. His actions led to spectacular victories as well as stunning defeats. Reconquista
Christian Reconquest of Spain
Philip’s faith clashed with Protestantism of northern Low Country provinces (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) 1560s, bloody revolt began Revolt in the Low Countries
Dutch Revolt Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip To punish, Philip sent army under command of Duke of Alba Alba set up court –Known locally as Court of Blood –Tortured, executed thousands suspected of being rebels –Cruelties made situation worse; rebellion broke out anew
Dutch Revolt Revolt dragged on for decades 1609, truce reached Seven northern provinces formed independent nation, the Netherlands Southern provinces remained in Spanish hands
English Aid to Dutch Dutch revolt deepened another rivalry, between Spain, England As fellow Protestants, England sent aid to Dutch rebels England’s assistance to Dutch infuriated Philip Spain and England
Attacks on Spanish Ships Philip also worried about English attacks on his ships England’s Queen Elizabeth I allowed ship captains to attack Spanish treasure ships, steal gold, silver for England
Invasion Planned King Philip II wanted to stop England from raiding ships, return England to Catholic Church Decided to invade England
Philip’s Armada Philip ordered navy to assemble great fleet, the Spanish Armada Totaled 131 ships, 20,000 soldiers, sailors, 180 priests 1588, invincible fleet sailed into English channel Queen Elizabeth I rallied troops and prepared for attack under leadership of naval commander Sir Francis Drake.
Sir Francis Drake Drake, an experienced explorer and sailor, was Elizabeth’s choice as vice admiral in command of the English fleet.
Duke of Medina Sidonia Philip’s choice for captain of the Spanish fleet. Alonso Perez du Guzman, the Duke of Medina Sidonia,came from one of the wealthiest families in Spain. He had little sailing or military experience, but was powerful and popular.
Spanish Offensive In July 1588 the Duke of Medina Sidonia and 131 ships left Spain. The plan was to sail to Dunkirk in France There the Armada would pick up another 16,000 Spanish soldiers that were under the command of Alessandro Farnese, the Duke of Parma.
The following chart describes the route of the Spanish Armada and their eventual defeat. Why did the Spanish strategy fail? Could they have avoided defeat by approaching the battle differently? Spanish Armada Route
Naval Battles – The end game Spanish packed ships with soldiers for land invasion Also planned to be joined by Spanish forces in Netherlands First journey stopped early because of severe storms at sea Faced fierce naval battles that severely damaged fleet
Armada Not Invincible – Disaster for Spain English aimed eight fire ships at remaining ships of Armada Spanish ships fled in panic, disarray As damaged ships made way home, several were wrecked
The defeat of the Armada was not the end for Spain, which recovered from the loss. But England remained Protestant, defiant, and undefeated. England now emerged as a world power while Spain faded from the forefront. An Empire in Decline
Spain’s real problems internal Philip’s government centralized He trusted no one Court riddled by factions, suspicion Government action practically came to standstill Internal Problems
Philip spent wealth from Americas on constant warfare Borrowed money often; went bankrupt four times Prices driven up, inflation Spain did not develop industries Americas Join the Battle Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power.
Recall What were two events that caused problems for Spain? Answer(s): revolt in the Netherlands; defeat of the Spanish Armada