Presentation on theme: "Hebrews Judaism Over the Centuries. Timeline 1. Get out your notes from last class. 2. Add that information to your timeline. 3. You will take a quiz."— Presentation transcript:
Timeline 1. Get out your notes from last class. 2. Add that information to your timeline. 3. You will take a quiz on the beliefs and texts in about 5 minutes.
Hebrew Beliefs and Texts Quiz Use you maps and timeline to assist you. 1.What are some beliefs of the Hebrews/Jews? (gods, people, holidays, etc.) A. B. C. 2. What can Hebrews/Jews use to help them learn about their religion? (books, laws, people, etc.) A. B. 3.What sea is located to the west of Israel? A. 4. The Jordan River connects what two seas with each other? A. B. 5. This is the most important city in Israel….even today? A.
Focus – Copy down please. 1. How did revolt, defeat and migration affect the Jews? 2. The Diaspora led to new cultural traditions in Europe. Compare and contrast them. 3. How do Jewish traditions and holy days celebrate their history and religion?
Revolt, Defeat, and Migration The teachings of Judaism helped unit the ancient Jews. After the conquest of Israel by Romans, many events threatened to tear Jewish society apart. One threat to Jewish society was foreign rule. Jews were tired of this and wanted to regain their independence. If the Jews could regain their independence, they cold recreate the kingdom of Israel.
Revolt The most rebellious group of Jews were called the Zealots. They refused to accept any rule except God. In A.D. 66, the Zealots began a revolt against Roman rule. In the end, A.D. 70, the Jew’s revolt was crushed. The revolt lasted for four years and caused terrible damage. Jerusalem lay in ruins, thousands of people dies, and the Temple was burned down. The Zealots refused to become Roman slaves – they killed themselves. To punish the revolt, Jews in Jerusalem were killed and others were taken to Rome as slaves. There was another Diaspora, or Jews leaving Israel.
Results of the Revolt Romans made sure the revolt would not happen again. About 1,000, Zealots locked themselves in a mountain fortress called Masada. Romans sent 15,000 soldiers to capture the Zealots. For two years Zealots fought off the revolt. Finally, in A.D. 73, as the Romans broke through Masada’s walls, the Zealots took their own lives instead of becoming Roman slaves. To punish the revolt, Jews in Jerusalem were killed and others were taken to Rome as slaves. There was another Diaspora, or Jews leaving Israel.
A Second Revolt Those Jews who stayed in Jerusalem and Israel began another revolt. Once again, however, the Roman army defeated the Jews. After this rebellion in the 130s A.D., the Romans banned all Jews from the city of Jerusalem. Any Jew caught in or near Jerusalem would be killed. As a result, Jewish migration, or Diaspora, throughout the Mediterranean region increased.
Migrations and Discrimination For Jews not living in Jerusalem, the nature of Judaism changed. They no longer had a single Temple to worship. Local synagogues, places of worship, became important. At the same time, leaders called rabbis, or religious leaders, took on a greater role in guiding Jews in their religious lives. Rabbis were responsible for interpreting the Torah and teaching. Many rabbis also served as leaders of Jewish communities. Discrimination was faced by many Jews outside of Israel.
Jews in Eastern Europe Ashkenazim, is made up of descendent of Jews who moved to France, Germany, and eastern Europe during the Diaspora. They had their own communities separate from non-Jews. These Jews took care of each other. Often they faced discrimination. Their own customs were developed, such as their own language. Yiddish, is similar to German but is written in the Hebrew Alphabet. Also, they are more apt to follow the food laws, especially during Holy Days and festivals.
Jews in Spain and Portugal Sephardim, descendents of Jews in Spain and Portugal. They also have a language of their own – Ladino. It is a mix of Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic. Sephardim Jews are more lenient on food laws. These Jews mixed with the region’s non-Jews, and were allowed freedom of worship and freedom of movement. They borrowed from other traditions and cultures. Jewish scholars made great advances in writing, math, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy.
Traditions and Holy Days Jewish culture is one of the oldest in the world. Because their roots go back so far, many Jews feel a strong connection with their past. They also feel that understanding their history will help them better follow Jewish teachings. Their traditions and holy days help them understand and celebrate their history.
Hanukkah Falling in December, Hanukkah honors the rededication of the Temple during the revolt of the Maccabees. Today Jews celebrate this event by lighting candles in a special candleholder called a menorah. Its eight branches represent the eight days through which the oil, used in rededication, burned. Also, gifts are exchanged nightly.
Passover More important than Hanukkah to Jews, Passover is time celebrated in March or April. It is a time to remember the Exodus, the journey of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt. Israelites left Egypt so quickly that bakers didn’t have time to let their bread rise. Therefor Jews eat Matzo, a flat, unrisen bread. They also celebrate the holy day with ceremonies and a ritual meal called a seder. During the seder, participants recall and reflect upon the events of the Exodus.
High Holy Days High Holy Days, the two most sacred of all Jewish holy days, take place in September or October. The first two days, Rosh Hashanah, celebrate the beginning of a new year in the Jewish calendar. On Yom Kippur, which falls soon afterward, Jews ask God to forgive their sins. It is the holiest day. Because it is so holy, Jews don’t eat or drink anything for the entire day.
Review 1. How did revolt, defeat and migration affect the Jews? 2. The Diaspora led to new cultural traditions. Compare and contrast each other. Compare and contrast with the older beliefs of Judaism. 3. How do Jewish traditions and holy days celebrate their history and religion?
Independent Design a cause and effect explanation on the lesson. You will need a minimum of 5 aspects to focus on. This may be done using a T-chart, flow chart/map, etc. Also, be sure to include 3 visuals to assist you in your explanation.