3The Start of it all…On July 9th, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was read for the first time in New York City.The immediate reaction of many of the colonists was to go pull down a statue of King George III.Look at the next two images.
6Questions What is different between these two images? Why? Why might people be pulling down a Statue of King George III?Is everyone in support of what is happening?What does that (#3 & the Painting) say about the American Revolution at its beginning?
7America by the Numbers At the time of the revolution 2/5 of colonists were patriots who believed they should be immediately freed from Britain1/5 of the colonist were Loyalists, or people who continued to support Britain and felt they should not revolt at all2/5 of the colonists were moderates, who felt the colonies and Britain could resolve their issues peacefully.
8The Revolution… Rebellion… or War Depending on who you speak to the conflict between the colonies and Britain could be a number of things.Some people think that the event started at the Boston Massacre, some think it dates back to the French and Indian war.What most people do agree on is that taxes became one of the biggest issues.
9French & Indian WarA land war was fought in North America betweenThis is known as the French and Indian war (as the French and Indians largely fought together).Britain won this war, but felt it was only fair that the colonist pay for it (as Britain felt it was spending money helping the colonists)
11Taxes Britain intended to get its payment through taxes. Sugar Act: a tax passed on sugar and non-British goods. (Not noticed- affects merchants)Stamp Act: A stamp is required on anything paper (news papers, documents, playing cards). This causes a HUGE uproar as it affects many people.Parliament would repeal the Stamp Act, but maintains its authority to govern the colonies, and would impose more taxes in the future.
13The Colonists felt that they could only be directly taxed by their own elected officials. Anything else was Tyranny: “Taxation without Representation is tyranny.”Parliament’s response to the unrest was to pass an Act reconfirming they could legally rule the colonies.They will acknowledge Britain's right to regulate trade.This will end the British policy of Salutary Neglect, or Healthy disregard.
14More TaxesTownshend Acts: Will place taxes on British glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea.Americans will boycott, not buy, British goodsAs tensions grow a group of colonist and British soldiers will get into a fight in Boston, 5 die.This will be called a Massacre by Samuel Adams, and an engraving will be made by a silversmith, Paul Revere, and sent through out the colonies.
16The large majority of duties place on items by the Townshend act will be dropped, except for the tax on tea.Samuel Adams tried to keep the spirit of protest alive, and creates letter writing groups to raise support.1773 Parliament, trying to help a struggling company, gives the British East India Company exclusive rights to sell tea in the Colonies.Colonist are angry as they feel it threatens their merchants, and a boycott is called for.16 men, dressed as Mohawk Indians, will board 3 ships and dump 90,000 lbs of tea into the harbor.
20The Fighting Begins The Intolerable Acts will cause another boycott. Militias (minutemen), groups of volunteer soldiers, will be formedOn April , 700 British troops are seen heading towards Concord MA to seize weapons, and the Minutemen are called on.The British meet about Minutemen in Lexington MA, after a mystery first shot, the war begins, and 8 militia men die.The British meet 100s of Militia at Concord, are turned away, and over 200 British die.
21It beginsAfter the Battles of Lexington & Concord the 2nd Continental Congress (1775) will be formed (the 1st recommended the boycotts in 1774)The 2nd CC decides that the Colonies should have their own army, called the Continental Army. George Washington is selected as their leader.Independence is not declared at this point.
22While the 2nd CC was meeting colonists and the British will fight over Bunker Hill (sight lines of Boston Harbor)The British will win a pyric victory: losing over 1000 soldiers to the 450 colonists.This victory shows colonists they can hurt the BritishThe 2nd CC will try to send a loyalty oath (Olive Branch Petition) to England, but King George III declares the colonies in open rebellion.
23Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Called for Independence for the coloniesSaid no one should be ruled by a kingSuggested a DemocracySold 120,000 copiesWell Received & spreads patriotic ideas
24Independence FinallyJune 7th, 1776, Richard Lee of VA suggest Independence for the Colonies at the CC (the Lee Resolution)A Committee is formed, but the writing of the Declaration is left to Jefferson.On July 2nd, the Lee Resolution is approvedOn July 4th the Declaration of Independence is approved.
26The War Starts (Officially) 40,000 British Troops + 30,000 Hessians (Mercenaries: fight for pay soldiers)Full force of the British Navy20,000 Colonial Troops & George Washington
27Washington, being outnumbered and humiliated early, decides to fight a defensive war. He only engages in battles he thinks he can win, and willingly retreats to fight another day.The British are not fighting the war to win, but to reunify the Colonies with Britain. Therefore, they never go for the “kill” when they have the opportunity.Result: Lots of moving, with numerous small battles. The War goes slowly
28Battle of Saratoga1777, the British Surrender at the Battle of Saratoga (Benedict Arnold).This victory will convince the French to lend military support to the Americas (as the French hate the British and will join almost anyone fighting the Brits). This provides new troops, supplies, and a navy.
29Valley Forge Winter of 1777-78 2,500 men will die from the Continental Army from exposure & diseaseWashington holds the army together through charisma. The army will survive to fight in 1778
30The SouthNot winning decisively in the North, the British attempt to break the South.The South used Guerrilla Warfare (small groups of fighters moving quickly to inflict damage, and then disappearing)Francis Marion: Swamp FoxThis greatly annoys, hurts, and frustrates the British as they can’t fight this style of war.
31The End: Battle of Yorktown The British General, Lord Cornwall, will move his men to Yorktown hoping to be evacuated by the Birtish Navy.The French will cut off the sea, the Colonist cut off the land, and Cornwall has no choice but to surrender.Roughly 25,000 colonists will (6,500 Combat, 10,000 disease, and 8,500 as prisoners)The Revolution will officially end with the Treaty of Paris (1783)