Chapter Eighteen Toward the Modern Era: 1870-1914
The Growing Unrest Belle époque: beautiful age But also a growing frustration, restlessness –Economic disparity, resentment –Population growth, urban alienation –Capitalism vs. Socialism –Suffrage Movement –Loss of religious security
New Subjects for Literature Psychological Insights in the Novel Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) –Irony and satire, passivity and emptiness Marcel Proust (1871-1922) –Remembrance of Things Past –Evocation of memory –Stream of consciousness style
New Subjects for Literature Psychological Insights in the Novel Nature of individual existences –The subconscious and human behavior Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881) –Concern for psychological truth –Human suffering, salvation –Crime and Punishment
Responses to A Changing Society: The Role of Women Family life, society at large –Right to vote, marriage ties Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (1879) –Criticism of anti-feminist social conventions Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899) –Sexuality as liberation from oppression
Ludwig Meidner “Ich und die Stadt” (1913) (I and the city) What emotion is being expressed here? How do you know?
Kathy Kollwitz’s realist etching, “March of the Weavers” (1897). What is being represented here?
Kathy Kollwitz’s realist etching, “Riot” (1897). What is being represented here?
Kathy Kollwitz’s lithograph, “Conspiracy” (1897). This is the third plate in her “Weaver’s Revolt Cycle”
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche’s Philosophy Nihilism; argued that the idea of “God is dead” Critic of judeo-Christian culture, nationalism, and all other “surrogate gods” Asserts will to Power Poses concept of the Übermensch (Superman—a Caesar with Christ’s soul)
New Movements in the Visual Arts The new realism of impressionism and the turn toward abstraction Édouard Manet (1832-1883) –Break from classical tradition –Assumes view of the artist; shows us how he sees his subjects
Look at the representation of depth here. Do you notice anything interesting or odd? –Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) (1863)
Compare and contrast the figure and bottles in the foreground with the reflection in the mirror. How are they different? A Bar at the Folies-Bergére (1882)
New Movements in the Visual Arts Impressionism Realism of light, color –Fidelity to visual perception, “innocent eye” –Devotion to naturalism; how things ‘really’ look in nature –Realism of light and color –Records all colors without trying to blend them together Claude Monet (1840-1926): created the style of impression with the following revolutionary, controversial painting….
New Movements in the Visual Arts Impressionism Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) –Beauty of the world, happy activity –Women as symbols of life –Le Moulin de la Galette (1876) Edgar Degas (1834-1917) –Intimate moments as universal experience –Psychological penetration –“Keyhole visions”
How does Renoir’s painting combine realism and impressionism? Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)
Degas’s “The Rehearsal” (1874). Again, how does this differ from classical and romantic art? What does it make ballet look like?
How do Degas’s nudes differ from the classical nudes of the Renaissance?
Degas looked to represent the ordinary in his nudes. The artist assumes odd angles to give the sense of his subjects being spied- on
New Movements in the Visual Arts Post-Impressionism Rejection of Impressionism Personal artistic styles that break with both tradition of classical idealism and with impressionism; every artist is working in his own unique style with his own unique techniques –Georges Pierre Seurat (1859-1891) –Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
New Movements in the Visual Arts Post-Impressionism Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) –Impose order on nature; does not represent things either as they really look or as they ideally should be –Priority of abstract considerations; nature as fundamentally geometrical –Mont Sainte-Victoire (1904-1906) van Gogh’s Starry Night (1889) –Autobiographical, pessimistic art –Social, spiritual alienation
A Cezanne still life; geometry and perspective are subtly modified to suit artist’s personal sense of order.
One of Cezanne’s many paintings of Mont Sainte-Victoire. What is the influence of impressionism here?
What kinds of shapes does Cezanne use here to impose order on nature?
Van Gogh’s self portrait. What is the first thing you notice? What is its effect? What do you think the artist is trying to communicate about himself? (we’ve come a long way from Albrecht Dürer!)
Starry Night. What is Van Gogh communicating about the stars and the night?
New Movements in the Visual Arts Fauvism “Les Fauves”: the wild beasts of france Loss of traditional values of color, form Distortion of natural relationships Henri Matisse, The Red Studio (1911)
How is Matisse’s The Red Studio an example of Fauvism?
Matisse’s “The Joy of Life” (1906). What makes things look so joyful here? How is this different from classical realism and impressionsim?
New Movements in the Visual Arts Expressionism Alarm and hysteria Edvard Munch, The Scream (1893) –Autobiographical, social, psychological Die Brücke (The Bridge), Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) –Emotional impact, alienation and loneliness –Heckel (1883-1970), Nolde (1867-1956)
What is being expressed here in Edvard Munch’s The Scream (1893)?
An Erich Heckel expressionist woodcut What emotion is being produced here?
Emil Nolde’s “Die Sünderin (Christus und die Sünderin)” (1926)
Nolde’s “Pentecost.” How is this different from the many images of the pentecost found on medieval churches?