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U.S. History and Government United States of America 100 Years of History; 1776-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History and Government United States of America 100 Years of History; 1776-1900."— Presentation transcript:

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2 U.S. History and Government United States of America 100 Years of History; 1776-1900

3 Why start a new country? Reasons for American Revolt: −Increased Regulation Proclamation of 1763 Intolerable Acts −Taxation without representation The stamp act What they were seeking: Freedom of religion The right to self govern Freedom of speech/press The Boston Tea Party English stamps from the Stamp Act

4 Independence and The American Revolution 1775-1781 America formally declares independence from England on July 4 th 1776. The Declaration Committee

5 The Revolutionary War Americans win the war for independence at the Battle of Yorktown October 19, 1781 Britain eventually accepts defeat and signs the Treaty of Paris in September of 1783 The fight for independence began in Concord, Massachusetts, April 18, 1775 Military Strategies Evolve: Guerrilla Warfare Washington Crossing the Delaware River

6 A Nation and Its Ideals Emerge under the Constitution Equality, Rights, Liberty, Opportunity, Democracy are the foundation of the new country The Articles of Confederation are first adopted but don’t give the central government a chance The Constitution is finally ratified by all 13 states in 1790 The Liberty Bell The United States Constitution Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride

7 An Expanding Nation: The first ten years America Pushes Beyond its Colonial Borders −1790-1800 Three new states are added, Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee −Moving “West” Farming Was King George Washington: The peoples president −Defined what the American President was Political Parties Emerge −Federalists (Hamilton) and Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) “I walk on untrodden ground”, “There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn into precedent.” - George Washington

8 Americans Destiny: Manifest Destiny, an“obvious fate” “Nothing less than a continent can suffice as the basis and foundation for the nation whose destiny is involved in the destiny of mankind.”

9 Change and Conflict in the American West Mining and Ranching Railroads open the West Indian Wars General Custer in the field Cowboys in the West The Joining of the Trans-Continental Railroad in Utah

10 Indian Wars Shatter Tribal Cultures Manifest destiny made no mention of the American Indian Indian Removal Act of 1830 sent all Indians east of the Mississippi west to the Oklahoma Territory Eventually American Indians would be reduced to less than one percent of their original lands “Many if not most, of our Indian wars have their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice upon our part” - President Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877 Images of Planes Indians Lakota Woman

11 The Civil War: WHY? Sectional Differences Divide the Union − The North Increasingly urban/industrial, by 1860 35% of the population lived in cities Dramatically increased Infrastructure for transport of goods (railroads) No longer depended on massive manual labor so their need for slaves diminished.

12 The Civil War: WHY? Sectional Differences Divide the Union − The South Maintained rural life and an agriculturally dominated economy Required the use of slaves to support plantations Abolition of slavery was a threat to the “Southern” way of life

13 Union (North) Great advantage in population, farmland, factories, manufactured goods, firearms production, and railroads. Confederacy (South) Advantage of defending own soil Outstanding military leadership Hoped for the Union to tire and allow succession from the union The Civil War: 1861-1865 President Abraham Lincoln Confederate President Jefferson Davis

14 Civil War: The outcome 620,000 Americans are killed Basics: The North wins, Slaves are emancipated and the United States is once again united….well, sort of Video: Ending the Civil War

15 Reconstruction; 1865-1877 Reconstruction Amendments: −13 th outlawed slavery −14 th made former slaves citizens −15 th Suffrage for African-American men Reconstruction Cartoon Poster

16 Reconstruction; 1865-1877 Presidential Reconstruction : President Andrew Johnson allowed the Southern states to reconstruct themselves. Congressional Reconstruction : Federal troops were sent to the South to insure state governments were more democratic Reconstruction Governments : Established public school system and outlawed racial segregation Poster of Black Politicians during Reconstruction

17 Reconstruction: The harsh reality The compromise of 1877 ended reconstruction Southern “Redeemers” instituted Jim Crow Laws that segregated blacks and whites. Redeemers also instituted poll taxes and literacy tests which severely limited the black male vote Jim Crow Poster after Reconstruction

18 Innovation and Industry: The beginning of the industrial revolution Steel, Oil, Railroads, and Electricity combine to spark the 2 nd industrial revolution Inventions such as the locomotive, electric light bulb, and telegraph change America forever These innovations combined with a new zest for capitalism propelled the U.S. toward the 20th century at light speed Video: Railroads Video: Steel Industry

19 Across into the 20 th Century It was a long an brutal 19 th century but American was rapidly growing and on the move As the 20 th century rapidly approached, America was beginning to make its place on the world stage in: Politics Big Business Immigration Imperialism Economics Us map from 1700-1907 Video: Impact of an Era


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