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AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism

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Presentation on theme: "AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism"— Presentation transcript:

1 AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism
Chapters 30 and 31 Pages 864 – 919

2 Impact of War on… Science & Technology
Albert Einstein German-born physicist - completely changed physics w/ ideas about space, time, matter, & energy Theory of Relativity: As moving objects neared speed of light, space & time became relative (they change)

3 Impact of War on… Science & Technology
Automobiles: Created new manufacturing jobs Expanded recreational travel Led to growth of suburbs

4 Impact of War on… Science & Technology
Airplanes: Improvements  commercial passenger service & international air travel 1927 – Charles Lindbergh 1st solo flight across Atlantic 1932 – Amelia Earhart 1st female solo flight

5 Impact of War on… Science & Technology
Radios: Expanded audiences for news, plays, sporting events Helped connect the world

6 Impact of War on… Art & Literature
Artists Rebelled: Rebelled against traditional paintings Didn’t recreate realistic objects Pablo Picasso: Founded cubism – broke objects into geometric shapes

7 Impact of War on… Art & Literature
Friedrich Nietzsche German philosopher – reason, democracy, & progress are empty ideas – influenced… Existentialism: No universal meaning to the world – each person gives life meaning through own actions Nice whiskers!!

8 Impact of War on… Society & Social Thinking
Sigmund Freud: Psychologist – theory about human mind, thought much of human behavior was irrational (urges & desires in unconscious mind) Weakened faith in reason

9 Impact of War on… Society & Social Thinking
Ex: Abbot & Costello Movies: Hollywood; became popular escapes from daily hardships Music: Jazz – energetic & fit freedom of times Women: Abandoned restrictive clothing & argued they should be equal to men

10 Warm-Up

11 Russian Revolution Causes:
Policies of Czars Autocratic Harsh measures Resistance to change inflamed masses Industrialization & Economic Growth Poor working conditions, low wages, child labor Low standard of living, lack of political power Gap b/w rich & poor  civil unrest

12 Russian Revolution Causes:
Russo-Japanese War ( ): Russia’s losses sparked unrest at home revealed czar’s weaknesses led to revolt in middle of war

13 Russian Revolution Causes:
“Bloody Sunday”: provoked strikes & violence across country forced Czar Nicholas II to promise more freedom created the Duma - Russia’s 1st parliament First session of the Duma 

14 Russian Revolution Causes:
World War I: revealed weaknesses of czarist rule & military leadership destroyed morale of Russian soldiers mutinied, deserted, & ignored orders

15 Russian Revolution Causes:
March Revolution: forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate throne due to problems caused by WWI Led by Bolsheviks under Lenin Romanov family executed – shows radicalism of Bolsheviks Duma set up provisional gov’t Headed by Kerensky – stayed in war – big mistake! Kerensky   Lenin

16 Russian Revolution Nov. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
Toppled provisional gov’t Gave power to Bolsheviks

17 Russian Revolution Nov. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution Effects:
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Peace treaty w/ Germany – ends WWI for Russia

18 Russian Revolution Nov. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution Effects:
Civil War Begins b/w Red & White armies Red = Bolsheviks White = All opposed to Bolsheviks Effects: Millions of deaths (fighting, famine) Showed Bolsheviks able to seize & maintain power Crushed opposition to Bolshevik rule

19 Russian Revolution Leon Trotsky:
helped negotiate Treaty of Brest-Litovsk commanded Red Army during civil war

20 Russian Revolution Lenin:
Background: Influenced by Marx led Bolshevik revolution w/ Trotsky & restored peace & order Karl Marx: ideas formed basis of revolutionary gov’t Believed proletariat (working class) would revolt

21 Russian Revolution Lenin:
New Economic Policy: Peasants sell surplus crops Some private ownership As a result, economy slowly recovered

22 Russian Revolution Lenin:
Political Reforms: Organized Russia into Republics (renamed U.S.S.R.) Centralized power, unified country Bolsheviks renamed Communist Party

23 Russian Revolution Stalin:
Name means… “Man of Steel”

24 Warm-Up

25 Social Climate Life in Great Depression
Millions lost their jobs Many made their homes in shacks Local gov’t & charity provided free food out of soup kitchens

26 Economic Climate U.S. has flawed economy - why?
Uneven distribution of wealth Overproduction by business & agriculture Lessened demand for consumer goods

27 Economic Climate Post-War German Inflation-How Come?
Gov’t printed money for war expenses & reparations  devaluing the mark to the point where people needed wheelbarrows full of money to buy food

28 Political Climate Problems with Postwar Democracies
Many citizens of new democracies had little experience with representative gov’t Some countries had many political parties This made effective gov’t difficult Led to formation of coalition gov’ts that often unraveled

29 Political Climate Ex: Weimar Republic (Germany)
Lacked strong democratic tradition Multiple political parties Germans blamed Weimar gov’t, not military leaders, for country’s military defeat & humiliation at Versailles

30 Economic Climate Oct. 29, 1929 – U.S. Stock Market Crashes
Believing prices would drop, investors tried to sell high-priced stocks that they had bought on margin Nobody wanted to buy

31 Economic Climate Depression in U.S.
Unemployment rates ↑ Industrial production, prices, wages ↓ Businesses failed Individuals lost savings when banks closed Farmers lost their land

32

33 Economic Climate Depression Worldwide
Some countries had war debts – dependent on American loans, investments Worried American bankers demanded repayment for loans American investors withdrew $ from Europe American market for imported goods dropped sharply – America had overproduced Raising of tariffs  decrease in world trade & market demand

34

35 Results Socialist Gov’t Success
Relied on tradition of cooperative community action & gov’t-sponsored public works programs to keep people employed & producing Raised pensions for elderly & benefits for those in need

36 Results British National Gov’t
Passed high protective tariffs Increased taxes Regulated currency Lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth

37 Results France – Popular Front
Economic crisis  Political instability Leaders feared growth of antidemocratic forces

38 Results And…. Rise of Totalitarian Governments (Fascism)

39 Warm-Up

40

41 Italy Mussolini Becomes Popular – Why?
Italians disappointed by terms at Versailles Distressed by social unrest, rising inflation, high unemployment Mussolini promised to rescue Italy, revive economy, rebuild military Founded Fascist Party, rapidly gained popularity as economic conditions worsened

42 Italy Result Mussolini publicly criticized the gov’t
Fascists promoted campaign of terror Gained support of middle classes, industrial leaders, aristocracy

43 Italy Mussolini in Charge – How?
King Victor Emmanuel III invited him to join gov’t Why? – b/c the king decided Mussolini was the best hope for his dynasty to survive

44 Italy Result Abolished democracy
Outlawed all political parties but his Fascist party Imposed censorship Had opponents jailed Outlawed strikes Made allies of industrialists & large landowners

45 Warm-Up

46 Germany Hitler Becomes Leader of Nazi Party – Why?
He was a successful organizer & speaker

47 Germany Result Nazis became a growing political force

48 Germany Hitler Tried for Treason – Why?
Mussolini marched on Rome – inspired Hitler & Nazis to try to overthrow gov’t & seize power in Munich He failed!

49 Germany Result Went to jail – wrote Mein Kampf
Book set forth his beliefs & goals for Germany

50 Germany Hitler Named Chancellor – Why?
Depression hit – German economy collapsed Civil unrest broke out People looked to Hitler for strong leadership Conservative leaders, believing they could control Hitler, advised von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor

51 Germany Result Hitler acted quickly to strengthen his position
Won parliamentary majority in elections he called & turned Germany into a totalitarian state

52 Germany Hitler Has Books Burned – Why?
Wanted to control every aspect of German life & shape public opinion

53 Germany Result Crushed opposition Forced conformity to Nazi beliefs

54 Germany Nazi Laws Deprive Jews of Rights – Why?
Anti-Semitism was key to Nazi ideology Nazis used Jews as scapegoats for Germany’s troubles

55 Germany Result Violence against Jews ↑
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) signaled real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life

56 Warm-Up

57 Rise of Nationalism China – Sun Yat-sen
Known as “Father of the Revolution” Struggled to bring nationalist, democratic revolution to China Succeeded – taken away by dictator Ideas fueled revolutionary fervor of early 20th century, became basis for Nationalist gov’t led by Chiang Kai-shek in 1928

58 Rise of Nationalism Ottoman Empire - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
“Father of the Turks” Military/Political leader, transformed Ottoman Empire into modern Turkey Turned Turkey into a secular country

59 Rise of Nationalism India – Mohandas Gandhi
Hindu - Led non-violent demonstrations (ex. Salt March), practiced civil disobedience (deliberate & public refusal to obey unjust law), & boycotts to weaken British control In favor of independence

60 Warm-Up

61 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union
Rise of Stalin: 1922: Lenin dies Turns gov’t against Trotsky, takes over 1927 – becomes dictator

62 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union
Builds industry Controlled agriculture through collectivization Those upset executed or imprisoned by Stalin (10 million) Used terrorism, fear to control people

63 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union
Total Control: No individual rights, citizens obey gov’t Used terrorism, fear to control people Wanted to lead a world Communist Revolution Sets up Command Economy – gov’t makes all economic decisions

64 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union
Great Purge: Executed or imprisoned older Communist officials that were a threat to Stalin Replaced them with younger, more loyal officials Five Year Plans: Goals for Russian economy led to shortages of food Entrance to a Gulag prison for political prisoners in Siberia

65 Totalitarianism in… Germany
Post-Prison Jan. 30, 1933 – Elected Chancellor 1934 – President von Hindenburg dies Hitler takes over! Becomes Furher – “leader” of Third Reich 1st Reich – Holy Roman Empire 2nd Reich – German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm

66 Totalitarianism in… Germany
Opponents to Hitler & Nazis murdered or imprisoned Created Gestapo – secret police Created Hitler Youth Burned any books not pro-Nazi Nazi Gestapo Cap Eagle Pin Heinrich Himmler, Chief of SS

67 Totalitarianism in… Germany
Kristallnacht – “Night of Broken Glass” Nov. 9 & 10, 1938 Riots, Nazis attack Jews throughout Germany Thousands attacked, homes, businesses, & synagogues destroyed Expelled from gov’t jobs, lost citizenship Many tried to leave (went elsewhere in Europe or US) Thousands taken to concentration camps

68

69 Totalitarianism in… Germany
Strengthening Germany: Built up military, created jobs for Germans Began building roads, buildings; controlled wages and taxes Expansion Believed Germans should rule inferior races Withdrew from League of Nations in 1932 Violated Treaty of Versailles by building up military

70 Totalitarianism in… Italy
Appeals of Fascism WWI veterans liked militarism Nationalists like reviving the Roman Heritage Believed a strong ruler keeps order & protects private ownership

71 Totalitarianism in… Italy
March on Rome Oct. 1922 “Black Shirts” Thugs, 30,000 strong, lead riots – beat up socialists & communists Mussolini named dictator for 1 year, takes over for good Calls himself Il Duce – “The Leader” Begins trying to expand the Italian empire

72 Warm-Up

73 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria
Why? Manchuria rich in coal & iron – valuable to Japan

74 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria
Result? League of Nations protested – did nothing else Japan ignored protests Pulled out of League in 1933

75 Aggressors Invade Nations Oct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia
Why? Avenge Ethiopian victory from 1890s Mussolini dreamed of Italian Empire in Africa

76 Aggressors Invade Nations Oct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia
Result? Italy won easily Emperor of Ethiopia pleaded w/ League of Nations for help – they did nothing in hopes of keeping the peace in Europe

77 Aggressors Invade Nations March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland
Hitler Violates Treaty of Versailles by… Rebuilding Germany’s army Invaded Rhineland

78

79 Aggressors Invade Nations March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland
Result? British & French appeasement (giving in to keep peace) Marked turning point in march toward war b/c: Strengthened Hitler’s power & prestige Balance of power shifted in Germany’s favor Weak response by Britain & France encouraged Hitler to speed up expansion

80 Aggressors Invade Nations March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland
Alliance Formed Hitler forms Axis Powers with Mussolini and Japan

81 Aggressors Invade Nations July 1937: Japan invades China
Rape of Nanjing: Japanese army killed 200, ,000 Chinese civilians in about 2 months Committed rape, arson, looting, & executed prisoners of war & civilians

82

83 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held
Why was it held? Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia give up part of its land to Germany (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia refused – Conference held to solve problem

84 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held
Was it successful? No – Germany allowed to take Sudetenland, but promised to respect new Czech. Borders A few months later, he took entire country

85

86 Aggressors Invade Nations April 1939: Franco becomes Spanish dictator
Civil War: Broke out in 1936 Army led by Franco – revolted against gov’t run by liberals & socialists Hitler, Mussolini, Soviet Union sent aid (army backed by Spanish fascists) Training ground for Hitler’s troops Gov’t resistance collapsed

87 Aggressors Invade Nations Aug
Aggressors Invade Nations Aug. 1939: Germany & USSR sign non-aggression pact Why did enemies sign a pact? Germany: Did not want USSR getting in the way in Poland Soviet Union: Wanted to avoid war with Germany & upset about how they were treated by other Allies at the end of World War I


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