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AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism Chapters 30 and 31 Pages 864 – 919.

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Presentation on theme: "AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism Chapters 30 and 31 Pages 864 – 919."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKS 46: Russian Revolution, Asian Nationalism, and Rise of Fascism Chapters 30 and 31 Pages 864 – 919

2 Impact of War on… Science & Technology  Albert Einstein German-born physicist - completely changed physics w/ ideas about space, time, matter, & energy Theory of Relativity:  As moving objects neared speed of light, space & time became relative (they change)

3 Impact of War on… Science & Technology  Automobiles: Created new manufacturing jobs Expanded recreational travel Led to growth of suburbs

4 Impact of War on… Science & Technology  Airplanes: Improvements  commercial passenger service & international air travel 1927 – Charles Lindbergh 1 st solo flight across Atlantic 1932 – Amelia Earhart 1 st female solo flight

5 Impact of War on… Science & Technology  Radios: Expanded audiences for news, plays, sporting events Helped connect the world

6  Artists Rebelled: Rebelled against traditional paintings Didn’t recreate realistic objects  Pablo Picasso: Founded cubism – broke objects into geometric shapes Impact of War on… Art & Literature

7  Friedrich Nietzsche German philosopher – reason, democracy, & progress are empty ideas – influenced… Existentialism:  No universal meaning to the world – each person gives life meaning through own actions  Nice whiskers!!

8  Sigmund Freud: Psychologist – theory about human mind, thought much of human behavior was irrational (urges & desires in unconscious mind) Weakened faith in reason Impact of War on… Society & Social Thinking

9  Movies: Hollywood; became popular escapes from daily hardships  Music: Jazz – energetic & fit freedom of times  Women: Abandoned restrictive clothing & argued they should be equal to men Ex: Abbot & Costello

10 Warm-Up

11 Russian Revolution Causes: PPolicies of Czars Autocratic Harsh measures Resistance to change inflamed masses IIndustrialization & Economic Growth Poor working conditions, low wages, child labor Low standard of living, lack of political power Gap b/w rich & poor  civil unrest

12  Russo-Japanese War ( ): Russia’s losses sparked unrest at home revealed czar’s weaknesses led to revolt in middle of war

13 Russian Revolution Causes:  “Bloody Sunday”: provoked strikes & violence across country forced Czar Nicholas II to promise more freedom created the Duma - Russia’s 1st parliament First session of the Duma 

14 Russian Revolution Causes:  World War I: revealed weaknesses of czarist rule & military leadership destroyed morale of Russian soldiers  mutinied, deserted, & ignored orders

15 Russian Revolution Causes:  March Revolution: forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate throne due to problems caused by WWI  Led by Bolsheviks under Lenin  Romanov family executed – shows radicalism of Bolsheviks Duma set up provisional gov’t  Headed by Kerensky – stayed in war – big mistake!  Lenin Kerensky 

16 Russian Revolution Nov Bolshevik Revolution  Toppled provisional gov’t  Gave power to Bolsheviks

17 Russian Revolution Nov Bolshevik Revolution Effects:  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Peace treaty w/ Germany – ends WWI for Russia

18 Russian Revolution Nov Bolshevik Revolution Effects:  Civil War Begins b/w Red & White armies Red = Bolsheviks White = All opposed to Bolsheviks Effects:  Millions of deaths (fighting, famine)  Showed Bolsheviks able to seize & maintain power  Crushed opposition to Bolshevik rule

19 Russian Revolution  Leon Trotsky: helped negotiate Treaty of Brest-Litovsk commanded Red Army during civil war

20 Russian Revolution Lenin:  Background: Influenced by Marx led Bolshevik revolution w/ Trotsky & restored peace & order  Karl Marx: ideas formed basis of revolutionary gov’t Believed proletariat (working class) would revolt

21 Russian Revolution Lenin: NNew Economic Policy: Peasants sell surplus crops Some private ownership As a result, economy slowly recovered

22  Political Reforms: Organized Russia into Republics (renamed U.S.S.R.) Centralized power, unified country Bolsheviks renamed Communist Party

23 Russian Revolution Stalin:  Name means… “Man of Steel”

24 Warm-Up

25 Social Climate Life in Great Depression  Millions lost their jobs  Many made their homes in shacks  Local gov’t & charity provided free food out of soup kitchens

26 Economic Climate U.S. has flawed economy - why? UUneven distribution of wealth OOverproduction by business & agriculture LLessened demand for consumer goods

27 Economic Climate Post-War German Inflation-How Come?  Gov’t printed money for war expenses & reparations  devaluing the mark to the point where people needed wheelbarrows full of money to buy food

28 Political Climate Problems with Postwar Democracies  Many citizens of new democracies had little experience with representative gov’t  Some countries had many political parties This made effective gov’t difficult Led to formation of coalition gov’ts that often unraveled

29 Political Climate Ex: Weimar Republic (Germany)  Lacked strong democratic tradition  Multiple political parties  Germans blamed Weimar gov’t, not military leaders, for country’s military defeat & humiliation at Versailles

30 Economic Climate Oct. 29, 1929 – U.S. Stock Market Crashes  Believing prices would drop, investors tried to sell high-priced stocks that they had bought on margin Nobody wanted to buy

31 Economic Climate Depression in U.S.  Unemployment rates ↑  Industrial production, prices, wages ↓  Businesses failed  Individuals lost savings when banks closed  Farmers lost their land


33 Economic Climate Depression Worldwide  Some countries had war debts – dependent on American loans, investments  Worried American bankers demanded repayment for loans  American investors withdrew $ from Europe  American market for imported goods dropped sharply – America had overproduced  Raising of tariffs  decrease in world trade & market demand


35 Results Socialist Gov’t Success  Relied on tradition of cooperative community action & gov’t-sponsored public works programs to keep people employed & producing  Raised pensions for elderly & benefits for those in need

36 Results British National Gov’t  Passed high protective tariffs  Increased taxes  Regulated currency  Lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth

37 Results France – Popular Front  Economic crisis  Political instability  Leaders feared growth of antidemocratic forces

38 Results And…. Rise of Totalitarian Governments (Fascism)

39 Warm-Up


41 Italy Mussolini Becomes Popular – Why?  Italians disappointed by terms at Versailles  Distressed by social unrest, rising inflation, high unemployment  Mussolini promised to rescue Italy, revive economy, rebuild military  Founded Fascist Party, rapidly gained popularity as economic conditions worsened

42 Italy Result  Mussolini publicly criticized the gov’t  Fascists promoted campaign of terror  Gained support of middle classes, industrial leaders, aristocracy

43 Italy Mussolini in Charge – How?  King Victor Emmanuel III invited him to join gov’t  Why? – b/c the king decided Mussolini was the best hope for his dynasty to survive

44 Italy Result  Abolished democracy  Outlawed all political parties but his Fascist party  Imposed censorship  Had opponents jailed  Outlawed strikes  Made allies of industrialists & large landowners

45 Warm-Up

46 Germany Hitler Becomes Leader of Nazi Party – Why?  He was a successful organizer & speaker

47 Germany Result  Nazis became a growing political force

48 Germany Hitler Tried for Treason – Why?  Mussolini marched on Rome – inspired Hitler & Nazis to try to overthrow gov’t & seize power in Munich He failed!

49 Germany Result  Went to jail – wrote Mein Kampf Book set forth his beliefs & goals for Germany

50 Germany Hitler Named Chancellor – Why?  Depression hit – German economy collapsed  Civil unrest broke out  People looked to Hitler for strong leadership  Conservative leaders, believing they could control Hitler, advised von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor

51 Germany Result  Hitler acted quickly to strengthen his position  Won parliamentary majority in elections he called & turned Germany into a totalitarian state

52 Germany Hitler Has Books Burned – Why?  Wanted to control every aspect of German life & shape public opinion

53 Germany Result  Crushed opposition  Forced conformity to Nazi beliefs

54 Germany Nazi Laws Deprive Jews of Rights – Why?  Anti-Semitism was key to Nazi ideology  Nazis used Jews as scapegoats for Germany’s troubles

55 Germany Result  Violence against Jews ↑  Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) signaled real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life

56 Warm-Up

57 Rise of Nationalism China – Sun Yat-sen  Known as “Father of the Revolution”  Struggled to bring nationalist, democratic revolution to China  Succeeded – taken away by dictator  Ideas fueled revolutionary fervor of early 20 th century, became basis for Nationalist gov’t led by Chiang Kai-shek in 1928

58 Rise of Nationalism Ottoman Empire - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk  “Father of the Turks”  Military/Political leader, transformed Ottoman Empire into modern Turkey  Turned Turkey into a secular country

59 Rise of Nationalism India – Mohandas Gandhi  Hindu - Led non-violent demonstrations (ex. Salt March), practiced civil disobedience (deliberate & public refusal to obey unjust law), & boycotts to weaken British control  In favor of independence

60 Warm-Up

61 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union  Rise of Stalin: 1922: Lenin dies Turns gov’t against Trotsky, takes over 1927 – becomes dictator

62 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union  Totalitarianism: Builds industry Controlled agriculture through collectivization  Those upset executed or imprisoned by Stalin (10 million) Used terrorism, fear to control people

63 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union  Total Control: No individual rights, citizens obey gov’t Used terrorism, fear to control people Wanted to lead a world Communist Revolution Sets up Command Economy – gov’t makes all economic decisions

64 Totalitarianism in… U.S.S.R. – Soviet Union  Great Purge: Executed or imprisoned older Communist officials that were a threat to Stalin Replaced them with younger, more loyal officials  Five Year Plans: Goals for Russian economy led to shortages of food Entrance to a Gulag prison for political prisoners in Siberia

65 Totalitarianism in… Germany  Post-Prison Jan. 30, 1933 – Elected Chancellor 1934 – President von Hindenburg dies  Hitler takes over! Becomes Furher – “leader” of Third Reich  1st Reich – Holy Roman Empire  2 nd Reich – German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm

66 Totalitarianism in… Germany  Totalitarianism: Opponents to Hitler & Nazis murdered or imprisoned Created Gestapo – secret police Created Hitler Youth Burned any books not pro- Nazi  Nazi Gestapo Cap Eagle Pin Heinrich Himmler, Chief of SS

67 Totalitarianism in… Germany  Kristallnacht – “Night of Broken Glass” Nov. 9 & 10, 1938 Riots, Nazis attack Jews throughout Germany Thousands attacked, homes, businesses, & synagogues destroyed Expelled from gov’t jobs, lost citizenship Many tried to leave (went elsewhere in Europe or US) Thousands taken to concentration camps


69 Totalitarianism in… Germany  Strengthening Germany: Built up military, created jobs for Germans Began building roads, buildings; controlled wages and taxes Expansion  Believed Germans should rule inferior races  Withdrew from League of Nations in 1932  Violated Treaty of Versailles by building up military

70 Totalitarianism in… Italy  Appeals of Fascism WWI veterans liked militarism Nationalists like reviving the Roman Heritage Believed a strong ruler keeps order & protects private ownership

71 Totalitarianism in… Italy  March on Rome Oct “Black Shirts”  Thugs, 30,000 strong, lead riots – beat up socialists & communists Mussolini named dictator for 1 year, takes over for good  Calls himself Il Duce – “The Leader” Begins trying to expand the Italian empire

72 Warm-Up

73 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria  Why? Manchuria rich in coal & iron – valuable to Japan

74 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria  Result? League of Nations protested – did nothing else Japan ignored protests Pulled out of League in 1933

75 Aggressors Invade Nations Oct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia  Why? Avenge Ethiopian victory from 1890s Mussolini dreamed of Italian Empire in Africa

76 Aggressors Invade Nations Oct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia  Result? Italy won easily Emperor of Ethiopia pleaded w/ League of Nations for help – they did nothing in hopes of keeping the peace in Europe

77  Hitler Violates Treaty of Versailles by… Rebuilding Germany’s army Invaded Rhineland Aggressors Invade Nations March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland


79  Result? British & French appeasement (giving in to keep peace) Marked turning point in march toward war b/c:  Strengthened Hitler’s power & prestige  Balance of power shifted in Germany’s favor  Weak response by Britain & France encouraged Hitler to speed up expansion

80 Aggressors Invade Nations March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland  Alliance Formed Hitler forms Axis Powers with Mussolini and Japan

81 Aggressors Invade Nations July 1937: Japan invades China  Rape of Nanjing: Japanese army killed 200, ,000 Chinese civilians in about 2 months Committed rape, arson, looting, & executed prisoners of war & civilians


83 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held  Why was it held? Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia give up part of its land to Germany (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia refused – Conference held to solve problem

84 Aggressors Invade Nations Sept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held  Was it successful? No – Germany allowed to take Sudetenland, but promised to respect new Czech. Borders A few months later, he took entire country


86 Aggressors Invade Nations April 1939: Franco becomes Spanish dictator  Civil War: Broke out in 1936 Army led by Franco – revolted against gov’t run by liberals & socialists Hitler, Mussolini, Soviet Union sent aid (army backed by Spanish fascists)  Training ground for Hitler’s troops Gov’t resistance collapsed

87  Why did enemies sign a pact? Germany:  Did not want USSR getting in the way in Poland Soviet Union:  Wanted to avoid war with Germany & upset about how they were treated by other Allies at the end of World War I Aggressors Invade Nations Aug. 1939: Germany & USSR sign non- aggression pact

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