Presentation on theme: "How the United States Became a World Power"— Presentation transcript:
1How the United States Became a World Power American ImperialismHow the United States Became a World Power
2Imperialism:The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, cultural and/or military control over weaker nations.
3Territorial Expansion 1867 Purchase of Alaska1867 Secured the rights to Midway Island1893 Overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in Hawaii1898 Spanish-American War1898 Annexation of Hawaii1899 Open Door Policy in China1904 Construction of the Panama Canal began1904 Issuance of the Roosevelt Corollary to theMonroe Doctrine1910s Mexican Revolution
4Why? Commercial /Business Interests Military or Strategic Interests Economic motives, Panic of 1893Military or Strategic InterestsReligious or Missionary InterestsIdeas of Social DarwinismClosing of the American FrontierGlobal CompetitionNationalismBelief in political and cultural superiority
12McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899). The White Man's BurdenBy Rudyard KiplingMcClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go, bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;
14In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Porto (sic) Rico, Cuba, and Hawai'i looking as if they would rather not be there.
15HawaiiDescendants of New England Missionaries to Hawaii in the 1820s greatly influenced native monarchs and their policies.Hawaii became a protectorate of the US in1849 by virtue of economic treatiesIn 1893, a successful revolt led by a white minority (sugar plantation owners) with the help of 150 US Marines resulted in the removal of the native monarch, Queen Liliuokalani.Cleveland refused to annex the island, but McKinley did not share his reluctance.Hawaii, annexed in 1898 by joint resolution of Congress, was used as a naval deposit during the Spanish American War.
20Spanish American War Newspaper wars Jan - USS Maine was ordered to Havana harbor 15 Feb - USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor19-20 Apr - War was declared against Spain"a splendid little war"Of 274,000 men, 5,462 died (362 in battle) and 1,604 were wounded
21Yellow Journalism Josef Pulitzer (New York World ) William Randolph Hearst(New York Journal )
22Cartoon. Spanish Ape hunkers over grave of USS Maine sailors. (1898).
23THE HEADLINES:Cuban Babes Prey to FamineThousands of Children of theReconcentrados Perishing in IslandTownsSights that Sicken Strong MenTHE HEADLINES:Does Our Flag Shield Women?Refined Young WomenStripped and Searched byBrutal Spaniars While UnderOur Flag on the Ollivette
26Results of the WarCuba becomes a protectorate (US exercises political/economic influence)by Platt AmendmentPuerto Rico becomes a commonwealth (part of the U.S—but with control over local elections/economy)Guam is annexed and controlled by U.S.The Philippines are ceded to the U.S. for $20,000,000.00The U.S. gains an empire
27"THE FILIPINO'S FIRST BATH. " "McKinley -- 'Oh, you dirty boy "THE FILIPINO'S FIRST BATH." "McKinley -- 'Oh, you dirty boy!'" Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, June 10, 1899 [artist: Grant Hamilton]
28Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, First Leader of the Philippines
29Philippine-American War First War for Humanity Revolt led by Emilio Aguinaldo against US rule3 yearsCasualtiesAmericans—4,234 dead; 2,800 woundedFilipinos—18,000 killed; 20,000 famineCost--$400 million
31"SPEAKING FROM EXPERIENCE "SPEAKING FROM EXPERIENCE. (Through Professor Marconi's wireless telegraphy)" "AMERICAN INDIAN (to Filipino) -- 'Be Good, or you will be dead!'" Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, circa 1899 [artist: Victor Gillam]
32JapanCaptain Alfred T. Mahan, cautioned that the Pacific could “be entered and controlled only by a vigorous contest”Japan had effectively closed its doors to outsiders, and it restricted foreign ships to a small part of NagasakiAdmiral Matthew Perry steamed into Japan and demanded a treatyThe Japanese reluctantly agreed to trade with the U.S.
33Japan Abe Masahiro, head of the Roju (governing council) under Shogun IeyoshiToda Izu, governor of UragaAlfred Thayer Mahan
36Open Door Policy China had a weak central government in 1900 Japan and several European nations had carved China into spheres of influenceSecretary of State John Hay sent diplomatic dispatches to these nations, asking that they guarantee two things:All nations given equal trading rights inChinaChinese territorial integrity (the countrycould not be carved up among the powerfulnations of the world)John Hay
38Boxer Rebellion Chinese Reaction: Boxer Rebellion 1899-1900 Secret martial arts group—Boxers “righteousharmonious fists”This nativist group attacked foreigners, ChineseChristians, and gov’t officialsA multinational military force of Great Britain, Russia, France, Japan and the US, put down theForeign nations forced China to pay $300 million for damages sufferedChina forced to allow foreign soldiers to remainAmericans used most of payments to give scholarships to Chinese studying in AmericaChina would not be recognized as a sovereign state until after World War II.A "Boxer" in 1900
39Cartoon. "The New Diplomacy Cartoon. "The New Diplomacy." Theodore Roosevelt bowls over Caribbean and Central American nations with his Indian clubs. (c. 1903).
40A history of U.S. intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean 1823: The Monroe Doctrine declares Latin America to be in the United States "sphere of influence."1846: The U.S. provokes war with Mexico and acquires half of its territory, including Texas and California.1855: U.S. adventurer William Walker invades Nicaragua with a private army, declares himself president, and rules for 2 years.1898: The U.S. declares war on Spain and as a result annexes Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii.
41A history of U.S. intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean 1901 : With the Platt Amendment, the U.S. declares its unilateral right to intervene in Cuban affairs.1903: The U.S. encourages Panama's independence from Colombia in order to acquire the Panama Canal rights.1905: The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine declares the U.S. to be the policeman of the Caribbean; the Dominican Republic is placed under a customs receivership.1912 : U.S. Marines invade Nicaragua and occupy the country almost continuously until 1933.1914: Mexican refusal to salute the U.S. flag provokes the shelling of Veracruz by a U.S. battleship and the seizure of parts of the city by U.S. Marines.
44Cartoon. Theodore Roosevelt behind big cannon stares down a small sombrero'd Columbia. (1903).
45Mexican RevolutionThe Mexican Revolution was brought by disagreement among the Mexican people over the dictatorship of President Porfirio DiazFrancisco I. Madero believed that President Diaz should renounce his power and not seek re-electionMadero's call for an uprising on November 20th, 1910, marked the beginning of the Mexican Revolution
46Mexican RevolutionIn March of 1911, Emiliano Zapata led the uprising of the peasants of Morelos to claim their rights over local land and waterDiaz then resigned as President and fled to exile in France, where he died in 1915With the collapse of the Diaz regime, the Mexican Congress called for national popular elections, which resulted in the victory of Francisco I. Madero as President
47Mexican RevolutionVictoriano Hueta seized control of Mexico and put Madero in prison where he was murderedVenustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against HuetaThe U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the countryEventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico
48Emiliano ZapataPancho VillaVictoriano HuertaPorfirio DiazFrancisco I MaderoVenustiano Carranza
51Anti-ImperialismThe American AntiImperialist League was founded in 1899Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, and William James were among the leadersCampaign against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism
54UNCLE SAM'S NEW CAUGHT ANTHROPOIDS, HOLDING HIS END UP UNCLE SAM'S NEW CAUGHT ANTHROPOIDS, HOLDING HIS END UP." "JOHN BULL -- 'It's really most extraordinary what training will do. Why, only the other day I thought that man unable to support himself.'" Philadelphia Inquirer, also published in The Literary Digest, Vol. XVII, No. 8, August 20, 1898, p. 215 [artist: unknown]
55Pro ImperialismIn addition to the physical advantages found in North America, Strong listed six features found in Anglo-Saxons which promoted the cause of supremacy:the love of civil libertythe prevalence of spiritual Christianity(3) a great money making power (England was the richest countryof Europe, Strong asserted, but the United States was even more wealthy than England.)(4) a genius for colonizing(5) a persistent energy among its people(6) the elasticity of American social institutions (The opportunityfor vertical mobility in American society was stimulating.)
57"FUTURE AMERICANS." "Member of Congress from the Philippines: Whatever became of that bill to annex Mars to the United States? The other M.C.: Oh, we defeated that at the poles." Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, February 2, 1899 [artist: Winsor McCay]
58"HURRAH FOR THE FOURTH OF JULY "HURRAH FOR THE FOURTH OF JULY! WE'RE COMING IN ON INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS TOO." Journal (Minneapolis), also published in Cartoons of the War of 1898 with Spain, From Leading Foreign and American Papers, Chicago: Belford, Middlebrook and Company, 1898 [artist: "Bart" Charles Bartholomew]
59QuestionsHow was this era different from previous eras in American history?Is imperialism just Manifest Destiny moved off of the continent?What role should the U.S. play in the world?How successful were we in promoting the White Man’s Burden?