Presentation on theme: "The Roman Empire HIS 101. The Second Triumvirate Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Marcus Lepidus and Marc Antony (43 B.C.) Killed over 2,000 opponents (including."— Presentation transcript:
The Second Triumvirate Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Marcus Lepidus and Marc Antony (43 B.C.) Killed over 2,000 opponents (including Cicero) & defeated assassins at Philippi Marcus Lepidus shunted aside as Pontifex Maximus; Octavian & Antony divided empire Antony fell in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt After defeat at Battle of Actium (31 B.C.), Marc Antony & Cleopatra committed suicide Octavian proclaimed restoration of the republic, but Senate named him Caesar Augustus in 27 B.C.
Caesar Augustus (31 B.C. – 14 A.D.) Senate became lawmaking body, but under Octavian’s control Served as Consul until 23 B.C., then given maius imperium as chief proconsul & unofficial tribune He chose title of Princeps (first among equals) Successors became known as Imperators (Emperors) Named Pontifex Maximus in 12 B.C. & accepted worship as a god
Caesar Augustus (cont.) Reorganized the Roman Legions 28 Legions with 5,400 men each 150,000 men; drawn only from citizenry Served 20 years Noncitizens used as Auxiliaries – 130,000 men Praetorian Guard – 9,000 elite troops that personally served & protected Augustus Tried to conquer Germania, but Varus’ army defeated at Teutoburg Forest
Augustan Society Social Stratification Senators owned property worth 1 million sesterces Equestrians owned property worth 400,000 sesterces Lower Class had little political power Augustus introduced moral legislation to end decadence & increase birth rate Banished daughter Julia & Ovid for affair Adopted Tiberius as son & successor
Julio-Claudian Dynasty Tiberius (14-37) tried to involve Senate more at first, but gradually consolidated power Grandnephew Caligula (37-41) was insane Committed incest with sisters Drusilla & Agrippina Assassinated by Praetorian Guard, setting precedent Claudius (41-54) was able administrator est. imperial bureaucracy, further undermining Senate’s power Agrippina killed him & his heir to make her son ruler Nero (54-68) began well under influence of Seneca, but became self-indulgent & corrupt Believed he was a great actor & singer Blamed Great Fire (64 A.D.) on Christians, launching persecution that killed Peter & Paul Revolt by Spanish Gov. Galba prompted him to commit suicide Civil War – Year of the Four Emperors (69)
Flavian Dynasty Vespasian (69- 79) formally took title of Imperator Put down Jewish revolt (66 - 70 A.D.) Succeeded by sons Titus (79- 81) & Domitian (81-96) The Colosseum
The Five “Good” Emperors Nerva (96-98) introduced alimenta - assistance to poor parents in raising & educating children Trajan (98-117) was 1 st emperor born outside Italy conquered Dacia, Mesopotamia & the Sinai Peninsula Built Forum in Rome to celebrate his victories Hadrian (117-138) retrenched built wall across northern Britain Built Pantheon in Rome Put down Bar Kochba revolt in 133 & dispersed remaining Jews Antonius Pius (138-161) – nicest of the lot Marcus Aurelius (161-180) – Stoic who wrote Meditations
Imperial Rome Overcrowded and Noisy City of 1 million people Poor lived in Insulae (apartment blocks) Made of concrete & wood Danger of fire and building collapse Public Buildings Temples, Forums, Markets, Baths, Theaters, Govt. Buildings and Amphitheaters Food & entertainment for the poor kept them from rioting (Bread and Circuses) Chariot races at the Circus Maximus Gladiator contests at the Colosseum
Roman Amphitheater with Animal Pit in the Middle, Syracuse
The Terrible Third Century Commodus (180-192) = cruel son of Marcus Aurelius; assassinated Septimius Severus (193-211) – North African general who used army to seize power Decius (249-251) blamed problems on Christians for failing to honor gods Valerian (253-260) was captured by Sassanid Persians & died in captivity Aurelian (270-275) restored boundaries after invasions of Goths, Franks & Alemanni
The Empire Strikes Back Diocletian (284-305) restructured empire into tetrarchy 4 prefectures, divided into 4 dioceses Each prefecture ruled by an Augustus, with a lieutenant called a Caesar Diocletian had ultimate authority Diocletian ruled eastern half of empire; Maximian ruled western half Diocletian est. wage & price controls to regulate economy
Constantine (306-337) Had vision of cross before Battle of Milvian Bridge (312) Issued Edict of Milan (313) – officially tolerating Christianity Created new capital at Constantinople Greatly expanded army & civil service
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