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Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

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1 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
Building a German Nation Strengthening Germany Unifying Italy Nationalism Threatens Old Empires Russia: Reform and Reaction

2 Group Instruction/Presentations
Chapter 10 – Each group will do Outline their section Identify Key Points Create a Visual Aid Create a worksheet for the class (provide Ms. Copp a key) Make a presentation Write 2-3 multiple choice questions & 1 short response question You will get today thru Tuesday 1/3 to do work Presentations begin on Wednesday 1/4

3 Groups – Period 2 Section One Section Two Section Three Section Four
Paul, Laura, JD, Conner, Austin, Ryley Section Two Charlie, Riley C, Samuel, Jennifer, Kenson, Brandon Section Three Ashley, Nathan, Kevin, Natalie, Megan Section Four Desi, John, Maria, Jandy, Matt Section Five Toby, Jamie, Tim, Kyle, Tabitha

4 Groups – Period 4 Section One Section Two Section Three Section Four
Brennan, Kadejah, Morgan Section Two Ray, Chase, Adam Section Three Orris, Shania, Kyle, Kortni Section Four Eric, Hunter S, Andrew Section Five Joel, Hunter R, Celia, Samantha

5 Building a German Nation
Germany was many smaller states in early 1800’s Napoleon made some major changes when he conquered the region Dissolved the “Holy Roman Empire” Organized the states into the “Rhine Confederation” Encouraged freeing the serf Made trade easier, Abolished laws against Jewish Many did not like the changes and fought French rule When Napoleon defeated, a loose confederation (under Austrian rule) created Germany remained fragmented until Bismarck unified it (Prussia) Prussia, led by Bismarck, moved to build up military Bismarck then led Prussia in 3 wars, each increasing the strength of the country and its military Wars with Denmark and Austria * Franco-Prussian War Annexed both territories Bismarck played up old rivalry between Prussia and France Divided up the “spoils” Prussian troops smashed French military; France had to surrender

6 Control of “the Church” in the 1800’s

7 Germany was made up of many regional “states”

8 Prussia – a united Germany

9 The German Empire Kaiser William I (emperor) led the 2nd Reich (empire) of Germany Kaiser William I set up government Bundesrat – appointed by rulers of German states (could veto Reichstag) Reichstag – elected by male voters Real power held by Kaiser William I and Chancellor Otto van Bismarck Kaiser William I (aka wilhelm I) Otto von Bismark

10 Strengthening Germany
The German Industrial Giant Economic Progress Large iron and coal resources Educated and disciplined workforce Capital to invest Science, Government and Industry Germans first to see value in science working with industry German government encouraged economic development (single currency) Banking system set up to support economic growth

11 Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
Bismarck pursued strong foreign policy goals Keep France perpetually weak and isolated Competed with Britain for colonies (land and resources) Bismarck’s campaign against the Church Distrusted Catholics (believed loyalty was to Rome not Germany) Laws passed to limit influence of Catholic church in schools, civil life Actions backfired, people stayed true to Church, Bismarck backed down Bismarck’s campaign against Socialists Marxists called for socialist reforms Feared workers would revolt Passed laws that dissolved socialist groups, shut down their newspapers, banned meetings Repression, again, backfired. Workers revolted and Bismarck backed down Woed workers from socialists by passing laws protecting workers (health ins) Germany became leader in social reforms protecting workers, aged

12 Kaiser William II Believing his right to rule “came from God,” William II pressured Bismarck to resign. “There can be only one master in the Reich” Bismarck’s educational system, the best in the world, taught loyalty to the emperor as well as reading, writing and mathematics William II spend HUGE money on military, to keep Germany as the dominant military in Europe Launched a program to build up Navy to challenge the British Empire around the world for colonies/resources

13 Europe in the 1800’s Many “states”, ruled by regional/ethnic powers
Monarchies: King/Queen, Emperor, etc Royal/Nobel class of the wealthy and the peasants (who were property of the royals and were very poor) Wars for control of land/power were common

14 Nationalism A strong feeling of pride in an devotion to one’s country
Factors in addition to the strength of Bismarck's Realpolitik (political realism) led a collection of early modern policies to reorganize political, economic, military and diplomatic relationships in the 19th century.

15 Germany – Quick Review Major Leaders How they became a “Major Power”
Kaiser Wilhelm II * Chancellor Otto von Bismarck How they became a “Major Power” Capital * Natural Resources Autocratic Power * Investments into science & industry Services provided to their people Social Welfare * Cheap Transportation & Electricity Public Schools * ‘Old Age’ Pensions Expanded Power of Germany/Prussia Military (Army & Navy) * Expand into neighboring states

16 Unifying Italy Frequent warfare and foreign rule led to loyalty to region rather than country In response to Austria’s intervention in Northern Italy, local groups formed secret societies to expel the Austrians Mazzini’s “Young Italy” Goal of secret society was to “constitute Italy, one, free, independent, republican nation.” Mazzini was before his time. Italy not ready for unification yet The Tide of Nationalism Common language and culture as well as geography made a unified Italy a natural idea Economic concerns also made a united Italy a good idea to many

17 The Struggle for Italy Cavour Intrigue with France
1852 – once elected, Cavour moved to improve the economy, agriculture, had railroads built and encouraged free trade economic changes His long-term goal was to push out Austria and annex Lombardy and Venetia Intrigue with France 1855- Cavour joined France and England in Crimean War against Russia Cavour gained favor with Napoleon. Cavour pushed war with Austria. France helped and lands of Lombardy and Venetia awarded to him Garibaldi’s Red Shirts Southern Italy (Two Sicilies) ruled by Garibaldi who favored a unified Italy With aid from Cavour, Garibaldi expanded his territory Unity at last Speed and power of Garibaldi’s advance scared Cavour Cavour encouraged Victor Emmanuel to go against Garibaldi Instead, Victor Emmanuel joined up with Garibaldi Garibaldi turned his territory over to V Emmanuel who was declared King of Italy In deal with Bismarck, territory granted to V Emmanuel After war, France pulls troops out of Italy and Italy finally under one flag

18 Italy faces new challenges
Italy had no history of unity so wasn’t sure which direction to take. Strong regional rivalries left Italy unable to solve critical issues Divisions North & South – North richer than South, had more cities. Cities flourished - Southern areas poorer, less successful Roman Catholic Church – Italy and the Pope struggled for power - Rome granted “the Vatican”, urged Catholics to not work with Italian government Turmoil Struggles between King and constitutional government Unrest allowed radicals to gain some ground, government will grant suffrage, extend rights To distract from turmoil, Italy joins in on imperialistic trend Progress Despite all this, Italy’s economy will flourish (did not have many natural resources) Industrialization will bring economic strength, urbanization Reformers pushed for changes in education and working conditions Many will leave Italy looking for a better life in America, Canada and Latin America

19 Italy: Quick Review Forces that hindered Italian Unity
Frequent warfare (regionalism) Nationalism Individual Leaders that forged Italy as a nation Cavour Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel Problems that faced Italy after 1861 Divisions (North/South, The Roman Catholic Church) Turmoil between King and government Reformers pushed for change

20 Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Empires Declining Empires clamped down to try to stop/delay the demands for change in Europe Industrial Revolution brought new wealth, demands by workers Huge EMPIRES covered many ethnic groups. Nationalistic groups will rise up against what they saw as foreign rule To keep their empires, some rulers agreed to democratic reforms (to give people a voice) The Dual Monarchy While leaders agreed to a dual monarchy, ethnic peoples did not agree, revolted Many pushed for rights, independence Balkan Nationalism (Ottoman Empire) Ethnic groups within Ottoman Empire demanded autonomy (nationalism) Ottoman Empire seen as “the sick man of Europe” Several conflicts over many years, while ethnic groups make demands Finally, the Ottoman Empire will fall (World War I), and ethnic groups will push for control of their territories

21 Comparison Chart (use p. 279-281)
Create a comparison chart between the Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Empire (3 facts about each – threats and changes that led to their decline of power) Hapsburgs Ottoman Empire

22 * Upheld Power: “Rule & Change Nothing”
Hapsburgs: * Upheld Power: “Rule & Change Nothing” * Multi-Ethnic Empire * Nationalism: tore apart empire * War Weakens/splits up empire * Did eventually begin to address econ. Problems * People will revolt * Will Split into Dual-Monarch Ottoman Empire: * Multi National Empire * Nationalism: tore apart empire * War Weakens/Splits up empire * European powers waiting for collapse to “divvy up” lands * Lands will split off in independence: one by one

23 Russia: Create a Chart Use your book (p.282-287) to fill in the chart
Important Facts About Russia and It’s Czars ( ) Czar Dates of Reign Important Notes About Reign Alexander I Nicholas I Alexander II Alexander III Nicholas II

24 Russia: Reform and Reaction
Conditions in Russia Russia was constantly expanding (Peter, Catherine) Became a multinational empire (in Europe and Asia) Czars wanted to modernize but feared it would undermine their power Russia will fall behind the European nations as they industrialized Social structure (landowners, serfs) limited growth of country Russian “Absolutism” Alexander I – open to changes (education, ending censorship) Proposed freeing the serfs Drew back from reforms for fear of losing support of the nobles Nicholas I cracked down on all reform, dissent 150,000 exiled to Siberia 3 pillars of Russian Absolutism Orthodoxy - Autocracy - Nationalism Realized need to modernize but could not without giving up power

25 Changes in Russia Russia’s loss of the Crimean War showed a backwards country behind the European powers Reforms of Alexander II: for Russia to survive and flourish, changes had to be made Emancipation of Serfs: – while freed, land allotted was too small or would not grow enough to support a family. Peasants remained VERY poor and discontented Local Governments “zemstvos” responsible for local issues (first attempts at self-government) Trial by Jury, limited censorship, reform of the military Growth on industry in Russia was encouraged

26 Reaction to Changes in Russia
Peasants: still poor/discontent Nobles: angry at shift in power Liberals: wanted more direct government Radicals: wanted more socialist (revolutionary) ideas *** Revolutionaries tried to take their ideas to the peasants. The peasants either did not understand or did not want radical changes *** Government cracked down on radicals *** Anger among radicals will see more severe attempts at change, including assassinating the Czar Alexander III will return to harsh practices of Nicholas I (in reaction to his fathers death) * All forms of democracy stopped * Strict censorship reintroduced * Critics exiled to Siberia * “russification” rejected any non-Russian people or ideas * Persecution and Pogroms: old laws placing limits on Jewish people Pogroms: violent mob attacks on Jewish people encouraged by state Large immigration of Jews out of Russia

27 Russia and the Industrial Age
Under Czar Alexander III and Nicholas I, Russia would begin to industrialize Railroads built to connect rich resources with factories in cities Trans-Siberian Railroad will connect east and west Russia Nobles (the support base of the Czar) feared/fought industrialization New problems came with industrialization (peasants flocked to cities to find jobs) (slums, poverty, disease, discontent multiplied) Radicals sought to tap into this discontent (Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin)

28 Turning Point in Russia
War between Japan and Russia ended badly for Russia A PEACEFUL MARCH: Discontent over war losses Workers on strike (shorter hours and better wages) Liberals called for reforms of government that was corrupt A priest called for a march, believing the Czar just didn’t understand the problems faced by his people. They marched past the Winter Palace and brought a petition for justice and freedom. The Czar, fearing the people, left the Winter Palace and called in the soldiers. The soldiers fired on the marching people, killing hundreds “Bloody Sunday” marked the end of the people’s trust and faith in the Czar 1905 Revolution Discontent exploded throughout Russia, Strikes multiplied Workers took over factories, Peasants took over farms Terrorists targeted officials Czar Nicholas II will announce sweeping changes to try to quiet the mobs “freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly and union. An elected body, the DUMA, created. No law would go into effect without DUMA approval

29 Results of the Revolution:
Czar quickly dissolved the DUMA Arrests, pogroms and executions followed against those who dared to challenge the Czar Despite some attempts at reform, Russia stayed autocratic Unrest was simmering, waiting for its chance

30 Overview of Chapter 10 As unification happened, the bigger countries meant bigger power for the rulers – they ruled “autocratically” * Increased wealth of the nation meant the ruler lived a more lavish lifestyle * The ultra-wealthy lived like kings * The workers lived in poverty * The majority of people struggled to survive, began to demand better The Industrial Revolution created conditions that opened the way for people with different ideals * Socialists * “Radicals”

31 Socialism: any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system Socialist: A person who advocate SOCIALISM as the correct form of government Radical: a person who advocates fundamental political, economic, and social reforms by direct and often uncompromising methods.

32 Essays: Chapter 10 How did the unification within Germany and Italy consolidate the power of the rulers of the day? What type of rule did they practice? What reaction did this cause in the people of these countries? How did the Industrial Revolution create an environment in which “Socialists” and “Radicals” began to emerge as possible options for the peoples of this timeframe? In Russia, the people revolted against Czar Nicholas II in Why did they revolt and what was the outcome of that revolt?

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