4Basic Greek Timeline ~ 2500 BCE 338 BCE Minoans (lived on Crete) Mycenaeans (mainland)Dorians – invaders (dark age)Ionians – “the Greeks”(brought back Mycenaeanelements)338 BCE
5Minoan Civilization 2000-1400 B.C.E. King Minos’s “sea empire” The palace at Knossos
6Daedalus, in Greek mythology, the Athenian craftsman, architect and inventor who designed for King Minos of Crete the labyrinth in which was imprisoned the Minotaur, a man-eating monster that was half man and half bull. The labyrinth was so skilfully designed that no one could escape from the maze or the Minotaur.
13Boxing Children, from Akrotiri, Thera, c. 1650-1500 B. C. E Boxing Children, from Akrotiri, Thera, c B.C.E. Fresco, 9' x 3' 1" high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
14Crocus Gatherer, from Thera, pre-1500 B.C.E. Fresco, appox. 35" x 32". National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Archaeological Society at Athens.
15Blue Bird. Fresco from Knossos. Late Minoan IA, 1550 BC.
16Octopus Vase, from Palaikastro, Crete, c. 1500 B. C. E. 11" high Octopus Vase, from Palaikastro, Crete, c B.C.E. 11" high. Archaeological Museum, Herakleion, Crete. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
17“The Minoans seem to have been the first ancient culture to produce art for its beauty rather than its function Art in Mesopotamia and Persia served political and religious purposes; while compelling and aesthetically very sophisticated, the art served a larger purpose. The Minoans, however, not only decorated their palaces, they decorated them with art; they used art for pleasure Minoan art frequently involves unimportant, trivial details of everyday life (rather than battles, or political events and leaders, and so on).”
18“This, perhaps, is the greatest Minoan legacy on the Greek world, for the great revolution in Greek art involves precisely this idea of producing art for pleasure only, that is, a purely aesthetic purpose for art: ‘art for art's sake.’ ”
19The Mycenaeans 1600-1200 B.C.E. Time of Homer’s epics Home of Agamemnon(conqueror of Troy)
20"Goddess," from the citadel of Mycenae, c. 1200 B. C. E. Fresco "Goddess," from the citadel of Mycenae, c B.C.E. Fresco. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
21The so-called Orpheus fresco from the Throne Room The so-called Orpheus fresco from the Throne Room. Palace of Nestor at Pylos, BC.
23Rhyton in the shape of a lion's head, from Mycenae, c. 1550 B. C. E Rhyton in the shape of a lion's head, from Mycenae, c B.C.E. Gold, height 8". National Museum, Athens. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
34The Persian Wars The Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE) The Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)--the Athenians won without Spartans’ help• The Battle of Salamis ( BCE)– Athens rises to the forefront of Greek culture because of victory over Xerxes (Persia)
39Solon’s Reform c. 640-559 B.C.E. Set up courts with citizen juries Eligibility for political office based on property not birthcitizen assembly: landowning males over 18 would participate.
40Pericles (ca. 495-429 BCE) • Democratic reforms The Assembly: central power of the state, consisting of all the free-born (no freed slaves) male citizens• Public buildings—public confidence• Glorified Athens’ democracy in his famous Funeral Speech
41Pericles• The Athenian Empire: taking control of the Delian League • Anti-Spartan foreign policy • Advocated territorial expansion, a policy that eventually led to the Peloponnesian Wars.
44Sparta A society organized for war Dual monarchy + an oligarchy of five officialsRelied on helots (enslaved Messenians) for food and manual laborPopulation: helots : Spartiate = 10 : 1640 BC revolt of helots
46The Peloponnesian War Trigger: Athenian control of the Delian League 454 BCE Athens moved the treasury from Delos to Athens and began to keep 1/6 of all the revenueThe Delian League became the Athenian Empire.BCE—27 yearsSparta defeated Athens.
52The Origin of Greek Tragedies http://www.watson.org/~leigh/drama.html The great dramatic festival of Athens was held in the spring in the theatre of Dionysus, to the south-east of the Acropolis. The theatre in Athens never became an everyday amusement, as it is today, but was always directly connected with the worship of Dionysus, and the performances were always preceded by a sacrifice. The festival was only held once a year, and whilst it lasted the whole city kept holiday.
54Format2-3 actors (male) wearing masks, with a chorus of members changing commentary on the action.
55MASKS http://www.arlymasks.com/tragedy.htm None of the original masks survive from the days of the Greek theatre, however, marble masks like this are found as part of sculptural decoration of buildings, giving us a good idea of what the Greek masks looked like.
56From M.H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms Key TermsFrom M.H. Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms
57TragedyIn Poetics, Aristotle defined tragedy as “the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself,” in the medium of poetic language and in the manner of dramatic rather than of narrative presentation, involving “incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish the catharsis of such emotions.”
58Catharsis Purgation, or purification Many tragic representations of suffering and defeat leave an audience feeling not depressed, but relieved, or even exalted.
59Tragic Hero Able to evoke pity and fear Neither thoroughly good nor thoroughly bad, but “better than we are.”Such a man is exhibited as suffering a change in fortune from happiness to misery because of his mistaken choice of an action, to which he is led by his harmatia.
60Hamartia Literally, “error of judgment,” or tragic flaw. One common form of harmatia in Greek tragedies was hubris, that “pride” or overweening self-confidence which leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law.
61Elements of PlotAnagnorisis: discovery of facts previously unknown to the heroPeripeteia: a reversal of fortune from happiness to disasterCatastrophe
66Cosmologists Natural philosophy The 6th century BCE In the Greek cities of Ionia in Asia MinorBelieved that “some single, eternal, and imperishable substance gave rise to all phenomena in nature” (Perry)老子: “一生二, 二生三, 三生萬物”
67Cosmologists Moving from myth to reason Materialists or matter philosophersThales ( BCE): WaterAnaximander ( BCE) and Anaximenes ( BCE): the Boundless 混沌 (氣?)
68Cosmologists Pythagoras (580-507 BCE) Lived in Magna Graecia in southern ItalyBelieved that the essence of things was not matter but number.
69Cosmologists Parmenides (515-450 BCE) Lived in southern Italy Reality (the ONE) → known only through the mind (Plato), not through the senses (Aristotle)A precursor of Plato
70The Sophists 智者 或 詭辯學派 Around 450 B.C.E. Moved from natural philosophy to the human worldA group of traveling scholar-teachersPrimary concern: languageProfession: rhetoric // oratory
71The Sophists Philosophical relativists No truth but opinions: Believed that perceptions and judgments are relative and subjectiveAbandoned philosophy’s claim to truth and gave priority to rhetoric
72Protagoras (485-410 BCE) James Harmon Hoose Library of Philosophy, USC
73ConsequencesThe Sophists’ doctrines encouraged disobedience to law, neglect of civic duty, and selfish individualism.
74Socrates( B.C.E.)“Know thyself”: The oracle at Delphi is said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance.“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
75Socrates The rational god = the highest good Unlike the Sophists, Socrates believed in certainties. Truth is real. Absolute standards do exist.“Virtue is knowledge.”As we are all rational, once we know what’s the highest good, we want to achieve moral excellence.
76Socrates Questioning received truth—examine everything The dialectical method: a dialogue
84Plato:Theory of Ideas A two-level reality Ideas // sense experience mind // bodyeternal forms // copies, shadowsintangible // tangible
85Plato: EthicsThe guiding light of all individual and social action is the idea of the Good.Virtue is a form of knowledge; no one can act against his better knowledge.
86Plato: the Just State Book: The Republic An elitist state Rule by the wisest: Philosopher-kings
87Plato and the PoetsPlato would ban poets from his republic. Why?
88Plato and the PoetsHe believed that poets (1) lie, in other words, neither know the truth nor disseminate it; (2) lead children and young people astray with false notions; (3) present and copy not the ideas, but images of images