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The Drive for Power in the East, 1650-1796 Absolutism and Enlightened Absolutism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Drive for Power in the East, 1650-1796 Absolutism and Enlightened Absolutism."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Drive for Power in the East, 1650-1796 Absolutism and Enlightened Absolutism

3 Austria Turns East  Post-1648 HRE  War v. Ottoman Emp. (Vienna—1683), Peace of Karlowitz (1699)  Counter-Reformation, subdue diets, establish hereditary rule  War of Spanish Succession and Peace of Utrecht (1714)  Charles VI (1713-40) and Pragmatic Sanction

4 Maria Theresa (1740-80): Matriarch of Steel  War of Austrian Succession—loss of Silesia  Modernization—break assemblies, centralize bureaucracy, tariff union, reform serfdom, etc.  Pious Catholic and mother  Diplomatic Revolution (1756) and Seven Years War

5 Joseph II (1765-90): Royal Idealist  Co-ruler with mother  Abolished serfdom and attempted a physiocrat reform of agriculture  Edict on Idle Institutions  Patent of Toleration  Legal code equalized  Revolt by Belgium, nobles, and Church  Ended in failure

6 Prussia: Nation Around an Army  Combination of Electoral Brandenburg and ducal Prussia (scattered state)  Destruction of 30 Yrs War  Frederick William, the Great Elector (1640-88)  War Commissariat and bureaucracy  Standing army (30,000)  Repress estates & Junkers  Excise tax  Religious tolerance (Huguenots)

7 Frederick William I (1713-40)— Paternalistic Warlord  Stern and efficient taskmaster  Merit system  Civil Service famous for efficiency (walking stick)  Increased army but didn’t use it  Potsdam regiment  Relationship with son

8 Frederick II, the Great (1740-86): Cultured Warrior CC hildhood traumas with father EE nlightenment interests (French, flute, Voltaire) CC odified laws AA ntimachivel and Forms of Government ““ first servant of state” FF ew gains for peasants WW arfare & personality

9 Russia: Big and Backward  Ivan III (1462-1505) and Ivan IV “Terrible” (1533-84)  Drive out Mongols, streltsy, suppress boyars  Control of Orthodox Church  Autocracy and Russia’s cultural position  Time of Troubles (‘til Romanovs)

10 Peter I (1685-1725): Modernizing Giant  Interest in technology and new ideas (German suburb, foreign advisors)  Backwardness of Russia  Old Believers and Nikon  Great Embassy (navy, industry, army)  Streltsy revolt, women, manners, Table of Ranks, Senate, mercantilism  Great Northern War (St. Petersburg—”Venice of North”  Reactions and effects

11 Catherine II (1762-96): Greatness and Power  Strong willpower and intellect, German  Peter II and palace coup  Patronage of arts & Enlightenment  Legislative Commission (1767)  Education and religious tolerance  Charter of Nobility (1785)  Pugachev Revolt & serfdom  Wars with Ottoman Empire, Polish Partitions  Symbol: Potemkin Villages

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