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BACKGROUND TO THE NEW TESTAMENT. In Old Testament times, the kings Saul, David, and _____________ ruled over all twelve tribes of Israel. Then the nation.

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Presentation on theme: "BACKGROUND TO THE NEW TESTAMENT. In Old Testament times, the kings Saul, David, and _____________ ruled over all twelve tribes of Israel. Then the nation."— Presentation transcript:


2 In Old Testament times, the kings Saul, David, and _____________ ruled over all twelve tribes of Israel. Then the nation split into the ten-tribe ____________ kingdom of _________ and the southern kingdom of ________, with the tribe of Benjamin absorbed into the tribe of _________. Solomon Northern Judah Israel

3 The ____________ conquered the northern kingdom and took most of its inhabitants as __________ into Assyria. Next, the ______________ took control of the Middle East from the Assyrians, conquered the _____________ kingdom of Judah, and took most of its inhabitants as exiles into _____________. Assyrian s Exiles Babylonian s Babyloni a Southern

4 The ___________ then took control from the Babylonians and King ________ let exiled peoples, including ______, return to their native lands if they wished. Some did. Others did not. Under the Persians there began the __________________ period, sometimes called “the _________ __________ ________ years” because of a _____ in Biblical record (though non-biblical records have survived). Persians Inter-Testamental HundredFour Jew s Silentgap Cyrus

5 During this gap, ______________ ______ __________ came from _________- Macedonia and conquered the Middle East by inflicting successive defeats on the __________ at the battles of Granicus (334 B.C.), Issus (333 B.C.) and Arbela (331 B.C.). AlexanderGreat Persian s The Greece

6 400 Years of Prophetic Silence Ezra Nehemiah Haggai Zechariah Malachi 400 Years The Gospels John the Baptist 70 Years from page 24 of Survey of the New Testament, by Paul Benware

7 The Historical Background to the New Testament I.The Political Background A.The Persian Period - 538 B.C. B.The Greek Period - 333 B.C. C.The Egyptian Period – 323 B.C. D.The Syrian Period – 204 B.C. E.The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period – 165 B.C. F.The Roman Period – 63 B.C. to Christ II.The Religious Background A.The Pharisees and Sadducees B.The Scribes C.The Essenes D.The Herodians E.The Zealots F.The Synagogue G.The Sanhedrin H.The Temple

8 Head of Gold (Nebuchadnezzar) BABYLON (605-539 B.C., Daniel 2:37-38) Chest and Arms of Silver MEDO-PERSIAN (Beginning with Cyrus the Great; 539-331 B.C., Daniel 2:32,39) Belly of Bronze GRECO- MACEDONIAN (Established by Alexander the Great; 331-168 B.C., Daniel 2:39) The Image of Daniel, Chapter 2 Legs of Iron ROMAN EMPIRE (Beginning with Pompey and Julius Caesar; 168 B.C. – 476 A.D., Daniel 2:40) Feet and Toes of Iron and Clay STRONG AND WEAK GOVERNMENTS OF THE ENDTIME (476 A.D. to present; Daniel 2:41)

9 I.The Political Background A.The Persian (Medo-Persian) Period - 538 B.C. The Persian rule over Palestine continued until Alexander the Great and his Greek empire in 333 B.C. This was the 2 nd empire mentioned by ___________. This means that the Jews were under the Persian rule at the end of ___________ and remained under them for the first 60 years of the ________________ Period. Inter-Testament Daniel Malachi Cyrus the Great, the first king of Persia Darius II, king of Persia 423 to 405


11 I.The Political Background B. The Greek (Greco-Macedonian) Period – 333 B.C. Alexander the Great, at ______ years of age, transformed the face of the world in _____ years. He is spoken of by Daniel in his prophecy in Daniel 7:6; Daniel 8:1-7 and 21-23. Alexander's conquests caused the rapid spread of ___________ (Greek culture). This culture permeated life everywhere, including Palestine. Greek became the common language; this factor had a significant impact on the spread of the _________ of Jesus Christ in ______ ___________times. 20 10 Gospel Hellenism New Testament

12 The 4 Kingdoms of The Greek Empire after 301 B.C.

13 I.The Political Background C.The Egyptian Period - 323 B.C. This was the longest of the six periods in the Inter-Testament Period. The death of Alexander the Great resulted in _________ falling into the hands of the first Ptolemaic ruler, Ptolemy Soter (Ptolemies were the line of Greek kings over ________). The second Ptolemy (Philadelphus) founded the _______________ library and the famous Septuagint translation of the Old Testament was made from the __________ to the __________ during this reign. Alexandrian Judea Egypt Hebrew Greek

14 I.The Political Background D. The Syrian Period - 204 B.C. In 198 B.C. Antiochus III, a Seleucid of Syria, defeated the Ptolemies and drove them back into Egypt. Antiochus IV, or Epiphanes (175-163 B.C.) replaced the Jewish ______ priest Onias III with Onias’s brother Jason, a Hellenizer who started making Jerusalem into a ________ city. Before launching an invasion of Egypt, Antiochus Ephiphanes replaced his own appointee in the Jewish high priesthood with Meneluas, another Hellenizing Jew, who offered to collect for Antiochus higher ______ from his subjects in Palestine. high Greek taxes

15 I.The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period - 165 B.C. – 63 B.C. One day, a royal agent of Antiochus visited Jerusalem and urged an elderly priest named Mattathias to offer a pig as a sacrifice to the Greek gods. Mattathias r_________. When another Jew stepped forward to comply, Mattathias ________ him and the royal agent, demolished the altar, and f_____ to the mountains with his five ______ and other sympathizers. Thus, the Maccabean Revolt began in 167 B.C. under the leadership of Mattathias’s family. We call this family the Hasmoneans, after Hasmon, great-grandfather of Mattathias, or the Maccabees (which means “the Hammer”), from the name given to Judas, one of Mattathias’s sons who led the rebels in guerrilla warfare to defeat the S_______. efused killed led sons yrians

16 I.The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period - 165 B.C. – 63 B.C. The Maccabees had enough of the excesses of Antiochus Epiphanes. But, this was not just a war against the ________, it was a c_____ war; the Jews who were loyal to Judaism were fighting other Jews who had become H__________ and who were siding with the Greeks. Ultimately, the Maccabees expelled the Syrian troops from their citadel in ___________, regained religious freedom, rededicated the _________, and conquered Palestine. Greeks ivil ellenized Jerusalem Temple

17 I.The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period – 165 B.C. - 63 B.C. The subsequent history of the Hasmonean dynasty (142-37 B.C) tells a sad tale of internal strife caused by ambition for _________. The political aims and intrigues of the Hasmoneans alienated many of their former supporters, the Hasideans, who _______ into the Pharisees and the Essenes. Some of the Essenes produced the _______ _____ Scrolls from Qumran. The aristocratic and politically minded supporters of the Hasmonean priest-kings became the S___________. Finally, the ________ general Pompey subdued Palestine (63 B.C.). Throughout New Testament history, then, Roman power d__________ Palestine. power split DeadSea adduceesRoman ominated


19 I.The Political Background E. The Roman Period - 63 B.C. to Christ Judea became a province of the Roman Empire. When the ______________ line ended, Antipater was appointed over Judea by _________ _________ in 47 B.C. Antipater appointed H_______, his son, governor of Galilee. He was appointed king of the Jews by Rome in 40 B.C. He ____________ almost half of his own family including his wife and _______. This was the “Herod the Great” who was king when our Lord was ________. This is the political background of the Jews during the 400 year period. Maccabean JuliusCaesar erod murdered sons born

20 Antipater prepared the list of seven man-made ancient wonders of the world. The list that was initially prepared in 2 A.D. had included the Walls of Babylon on the seventh position. However, The Lighthouse on the Pharos Island near the Alexandria port gained the seventh position in the list of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. This Lighthouse was 122 metres (400 feet) tall and the light at the peak was reflected via the convex glass and could be seen by the ships sailing even at a distance of 450 kilometres.

21 The Historical Background to the New Testament II. The Religious Background A.The Pharisees and Sadducees B.The Scribes C.The Essenes D.The Herodians E.The Zealots F.The Synagogue G.The Sanhedrin H.The Temple

22 II. The Religious Background A.The Pharisees and Sadducees The Pharisees held that the Oral Law was given orally to _________, to Joshua, to the elders, to the ___________ and then to the men of the Great Synagogue. The Pharisees were the i____________ of the Oral Law. The Sadducees rejected all this, holding to only “the law,” meaning the P___________. They denied the spirit world of a _______, immortality, and _____________ from the dead (Acts 23:8) while the Pharisees affirmed all of these doctrines. Pharisee means “separatists,” and Sadducees means “righteous ______.” Moses prophets nterpreters entateuch ngels resurrection ones

23 II. The Religious Background B. The Scribes From the time of the ______________ Captivity, there developed a new line of scribes who were not just transcribers or _______________, but a new body of men who became the expounders, guardians and teachers of the S___________. They became a distinguished order in the nation. They must be distinguished from the priests and the ____________, but this does not mean that they were alike or even together in function. Our Lord denounced the scribes because of their c___________ and outward p___________ (Matthew 23:13-18). Babylonian secretaries criptures Pharisees orruption iousness

24 II. The Religious Background C. The Essenes The Essenes originated during the days of the Maccabees. They were known for their strict, r_______ lifestyle; a lifestyle far more burdensome than the one created by the P__________. Although they aren’t mentioned by name in the New Testament, some believe that John ______ ___________ may have had some contact with them. igid harisees Baptist the

25 II. The Religious Background D. The Herodians The Herodians were more of a ___________ party than a religious sect. They accepted Hellenization and desired the political power and worldly benefits that came to loyal supporters of H________ family. Because they both considered Jesus an enemy, the Herodians united with the ____________ to bring charges against Him. political erod’s Pharisees

26 II. The Religious Background E. The Zealots The Zealots were Palestinian groups who advocated to violently overthrow R_______. They were responsible for a number of revolts in the first century, and it was their activity that brought about the terrible Roman wars of A.D. 66-72 in which _____________ was destroyed and tens of thousands of Jews were __________. ome Jerusalem killed

27 II. The Religious Background F. The Synagogue There is not a word about synagogues in the ______ _____________, but as soon as we start the New Testament we find them everywhere. The synagogue did not exist before the ___________ but it seems to have originated during that time – when the Jews totally turned away from i__________. There was no longer a Jewish _________ and they longed for the reading of the Scriptures. This is the way the synagogue came into being. The synagogue was congregational and not _________. The institution of preaching had its beginning in the synagogue. It was from this background that the early Christian church, as organized by the apostles, took its main form of __________. The titles given to the New Testament church leaders: Elders, Bishops, _________ are all carried over from the synagogue. Old Testament Captivity dolatry Temple priestly worship Deacons

28 II. The Religious Background G. The Sanhedrin There is another Jewish institution called the Sanhedrin, which in New Testament times was the supreme civil and ____________ tribunal of the Jewish nation. It had the idea of a council or _____________ body and also included the idea of a court. The Great Sanhedrin was something like a Jewish “supreme court.” It was the Great Sanhedrin that found itself in conflict with _________. Members attempted to arrest Him on several occasions; they desired to kill Him; they participated in His arrest; they broke their own laws and code of ethics in their trial of Him; and they are held accountable by ___________ for their actions. religious Jesus Scripture governing

29 II. The Religious Background H. The Temple The Temple was the focal point of Jewish religion and ___________. This is where the __________ sacrifices were made and the _________ of the Jews were celebrated. The Temple in Jerusalem was originally built by King ___________. The Temple of Christ’s day was rebuilt by ________ the Great, but it was destroyed in A.D. 70 by the __________. The Herodian Temple complex had 3 courts: the large outer “court of the Gentiles,” “the court of the _________,” and the “court of Israel.” Israelite women could enter the inner court area, but could not go into the court of ________. The _________ formed a police force to stand guard at the gates and constantly patrol the courts. worship feasts Solomon blood Herod Romans women IsraelLevites

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