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 At what point did the French Revolution become irreversible?

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Presentation on theme: " At what point did the French Revolution become irreversible?"— Presentation transcript:

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2  At what point did the French Revolution become irreversible?

3 Louis XVI Married age 15 Crowned age 19 Introverted Uninterested in government Isolated & Clueless

4 Princess of Austria Married at age 14 Lavish in dress “Madame Deficit” Scandals Marie Antoinette

5  Estates General- ◦ First Estate-Roman Catholic clergy (1% pop.) ◦ Second Estate-Nobility (1% of pop.) ◦ Third Estate-Bourgeoisie, Artisans, Peasants (98% of pop)  Bourgeoisie  Bourgeoisie -Middle class people (Doctors, Lawyers, Merchants)

6 Clergy 10% of land Nobles Owned 33% of land Bourgeoisie & Artisans Peasants Owned 40% of land

7  Long Term ◦ Corrupt & inconsistent leadership ◦ Resentment of 3 rd Estate towards privileges of 1 st & 2 nd ◦ Enlightenment Philosophy

8  Government Debt  Poor harvest & rising cost of bread  Louis XVI rejected financial reforms  Formation of National Assembly  Storming of the Bastille

9 Urban Commoner’s Budget: Urban Commoner’s Budget: –Food 80% –Rent 25% –Tithe 10% –Taxes 35% –Clothing 20% –TOTAL 170% King’s Budget: King’s Budget: –Interest 50% –Army 25% –Versailles 25% –Coronation 10% –Loans 25% –Admin. 25% –TOTAL 160% Financial Problems in 1789

10 French Budget, 1774

11 Where is the tax money?

12 Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!

13 “The Third Estate Awakens” 3 rd Estate proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France. 3 rd Estate proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

14  June 17, 1789  Third Estates created new governing body  Tennis Court Oath  Tennis Court Oath– Will not leave till they have Written Constitution

15 Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 Rumor>king was planning military coup against National Assembly. Rumor>king was planning military coup against National Assembly. 18 died. 18 died. 73 wounded. 73 wounded. 7 guards killed. 7 guards killed. It held 7 prisoners It held 7 prisoners

16  Slogan of French Revolution: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”-Rousseau Written by Marquis de Lafayette

17  Fighting for bread  Forced King to return to Paris and deal with the people

18  National Assembly confiscates and sells off church lands to pay for government debt  Civil Constitution of the Clergy>Weakens power of Catholic Church

19 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee June, 1791 June, 1791 Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. The King wasrecognized atVarennes, near the border & arrested The King wasrecognized atVarennes, near the border & arrested

20  Declaration of Pillnitz  Declaration of Pillnitz -Austria and Prussia willing to aide French royal family ◦ Austrian Emperor Joseph II is Queen’s brother  French response: Declared war on Austria  Other European countries feared France’s fate and that their ideas might spread

21 The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt Rumors : feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

22 The Path of the “Great Fear”

23  Aug 1792 ◦ Paris mobs attack and kill nobles and priests whom they accused of political crimes ◦ Radicals take over National Assembly  Call for new constitution

24  National Convention  National Convention (Sept. 1792) ◦ Wrote first democratic constitutions ◦ Monarchy abolished ◦ Extend vote to all males with or without property ◦ Metric system ◦ New calendar

25  Constitutional monarchy  Factions within the Assembly ◦ Royalist --nobles wanted to restore monarchy ◦ Sans – Culottes ◦ Sans – Culottes (“those without knee breeches”) common people who wanted to have influence within the government (Radicals/mobs)

26 The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class  Small shopkeepers.  Tradesmen.  Artisans.

27 The Sans-Culottes Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.

28  Jacobins vs. Girondists ◦ Girondists – moderates, felt Revolution went too far  Middle class ◦ Jacobins – radical  “Mountains” – most radical Jacobins  Calls for the execution of the King

29 Maximilien Robespierre  Jacobin  Lawyer  Most Controversial figure of the French Revolution  National Convention: Head of Committee of Public Safety

30 Georges Danton ◦ Jacobin ◦ New Republics: Minister of Justice ◦ National Convention: President of the Committee of Public Safety Jean-Paul Marat ◦ Jacobin ◦ National Convention member ◦ “Friend of the People” –public paper ◦ Hated by Girondists

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32 The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day!

33 Committee for Public Safety  Revolutionary Tribunals.  300,000 arrested.  16,000 – 50,000 executed.

34 The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 Triggered by the publication of August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning king’s treason.

35 Louis XVI as a Pig c For Jacobins, king was traitor. c Girondists felt Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him]. c For Jacobins, king was traitor. c Girondists felt Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].

36  Jan King Louis XVI was beheaded  Tried before the National Convention and convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the nation

37 The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers. So impure blood doesn’t soil our land!

38 Marie Antoinette as a Serpent The “Widow Capet”

39 Marie Antoinette excuted in October, 1793

40 Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine

41  France vs. Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Holland, Spain (1793)  National Convention instituted draft ◦ army ◦ First draft on European continent ◦ 1796 French armies commanded by young Napoleon Bonaparte

42 “The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793

43 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793

44 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19 c [A Romantic View]

45 Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%

46 The “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

47 War of Resistance to the Revolution: The Vendee Revolt, 1793

48 Vendee Revolt, 1793 Drowning the Traitors! Vendee Symbol: For God & the King!

49 The Arrest of Robespierre

50 Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Robespierre End of Reign of Terror!

51  Rise of Napoleon  Congress of Vienna tries to put Europe back the way it was.

52  Spread of Enlightenment Ideas  Reign of Terror caused fear of all Revolutions  Revolutions in Europe and Latin America  Growth of Nationalism Paris, 1848: To the Barricades!

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