At what point did the French Revolution become irreversible?
Louis XVI Married age 15 Crowned age 19 Introverted Uninterested in government Isolated & Clueless
Princess of Austria Married at age 14 Lavish in dress “Madame Deficit” Scandals Marie Antoinette
Estates General- ◦ First Estate-Roman Catholic clergy (1% pop.) ◦ Second Estate-Nobility (1% of pop.) ◦ Third Estate-Bourgeoisie, Artisans, Peasants (98% of pop) Bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie -Middle class people (Doctors, Lawyers, Merchants)
Clergy 10% of land Nobles Owned 33% of land Bourgeoisie & Artisans Peasants Owned 40% of land
Long Term ◦ Corrupt & inconsistent leadership ◦ Resentment of 3 rd Estate towards privileges of 1 st & 2 nd ◦ Enlightenment Philosophy
Government Debt Poor harvest & rising cost of bread Louis XVI rejected financial reforms Formation of National Assembly Storming of the Bastille
Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
“The Third Estate Awakens” 3 rd Estate proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France. 3 rd Estate proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
June 17, 1789 Third Estates created new governing body Tennis Court Oath Tennis Court Oath– Will not leave till they have Written Constitution
Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 Rumor>king was planning military coup against National Assembly. Rumor>king was planning military coup against National Assembly. 18 died. 18 died. 73 wounded. 73 wounded. 7 guards killed. 7 guards killed. It held 7 prisoners It held 7 prisoners
Slogan of French Revolution: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”-Rousseau Written by Marquis de Lafayette
Fighting for bread Forced King to return to Paris and deal with the people
National Assembly confiscates and sells off church lands to pay for government debt Civil Constitution of the Clergy>Weakens power of Catholic Church
The Royal Family Attempts to Flee June, 1791 June, 1791 Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. The King wasrecognized atVarennes, near the border & arrested The King wasrecognized atVarennes, near the border & arrested
Declaration of Pillnitz Declaration of Pillnitz -Austria and Prussia willing to aide French royal family ◦ Austrian Emperor Joseph II is Queen’s brother French response: Declared war on Austria Other European countries feared France’s fate and that their ideas might spread
The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt Rumors : feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
Aug 1792 ◦ Paris mobs attack and kill nobles and priests whom they accused of political crimes ◦ Radicals take over National Assembly Call for new constitution
National Convention National Convention (Sept. 1792) ◦ Wrote first democratic constitutions ◦ Monarchy abolished ◦ Extend vote to all males with or without property ◦ Metric system ◦ New calendar
Constitutional monarchy Factions within the Assembly ◦ Royalist --nobles wanted to restore monarchy ◦ Sans – Culottes ◦ Sans – Culottes (“those without knee breeches”) common people who wanted to have influence within the government (Radicals/mobs)
The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans.
The Sans-Culottes Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.
Jacobins vs. Girondists ◦ Girondists – moderates, felt Revolution went too far Middle class ◦ Jacobins – radical “Mountains” – most radical Jacobins Calls for the execution of the King
Maximilien Robespierre Jacobin Lawyer Most Controversial figure of the French Revolution National Convention: Head of Committee of Public Safety
Georges Danton ◦ Jacobin ◦ New Republics: Minister of Justice ◦ National Convention: President of the Committee of Public Safety Jean-Paul Marat ◦ Jacobin ◦ National Convention member ◦ “Friend of the People” –public paper ◦ Hated by Girondists
The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day!
Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.
The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 Triggered by the publication of August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning king’s treason.
Louis XVI as a Pig c For Jacobins, king was traitor. c Girondists felt Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him]. c For Jacobins, king was traitor. c Girondists felt Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].
Jan. 1793 King Louis XVI was beheaded Tried before the National Convention and convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the nation
The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers. So impure blood doesn’t soil our land!
Marie Antoinette as a Serpent The “Widow Capet”
Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine
France vs. Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Holland, Spain (1793) National Convention instituted draft ◦ 18-25 army ◦ First draft on European continent ◦ 1796 French armies commanded by young Napoleon Bonaparte
“The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793
The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793
The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19 c [A Romantic View]
Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
The “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
War of Resistance to the Revolution: The Vendee Revolt, 1793
Vendee Revolt, 1793 Drowning the Traitors! Vendee Symbol: For God & the King!