Presentation on theme: "HOLA TEXT PGS, 169-174 Mexico’s Road to Independence."— Presentation transcript:
HOLA TEXT PGS, 169-174 Mexico’s Road to Independence
Cause and Effect 1808, news of Napoleon’s invasion of Spain reaches Mexico City. Creoles and peninsulares prepare to seize control of New Spain, whatever the outcome. Creole reps from various groups would govern Mexico until Ferdinand VII is restored to power. The Creole movement called for home rule and free trade.
A Conflict of Interest This posed a threat to peninsular merchants, whose prosperity depended upon closed trade with Spain. Peninsulares led a coup, ousting the viceroy and establish their own regime. Creole leaders do not respond (property interests) Movement for Creole control is passed down to “marginal elites.’
Bajio Most modern of Mexican regions in its agrarian and industrial structures. Few indigenous communities. Bulk of population was Europeanized urban workers, miners, and tenant farmers. Agriculture dominated by commercial estates (upper class). Merchant-financiers
Bajio’s Economy Free wage labor This promoted growth of worker’s class consciousness and militancy. A decline in wages, standard of living, and job opportunities was brought on by rapid population growth and seasonal laborers. Also, the 1808 and 1809 draught and famine did not help the situation.
Revolt By 1810, a Creole plot to revolt was taking shape. A priest, Miguel Hidalgo, inspired by a genuine sympathy for the natives stepped up to lead the revolt. Miguel Hidalgo Summary
Hidalgo’s Shortcomings Failed to address the fundamental grievances of the people including: landlessness, starvation wages, high rents, lack of protection, and profiteering landlords. Hidalgo could not control his rebel forces.
New Leaders Rise Learned from the failure of Hidalgo’s tactics. Employed Guerilla Warfare Goal = exhaust the enemy and his social and economic base.
Jose Maria Morelos Assumed command of the revolutionary movement (also a priest). More radical in reforms and skilled in employing guerilla tactics. Defeat of Napoleon returns Ferdinand VII to the throne, freeing up the Spanish military. Drafted a liberal constitution that was rejected. Captured and met the same fate as Hidalgo.
The Movement Continues In 1820, a revolt in Spain forces Ferdinand VII to accept the constitution of 1812. Mexican deputies elected to the Spanish Cortes, or parliament proposed a solution that would have retained ties with Spain but granted New Spain autonomy. The Cortes rejects the proposal.
Independence Fearing the loss of privileges, the creoles and peninsulares schemed to separate Mexico from Spain. Teamed up Iturbide (Creole officer) and Guerrero (rebel officer). Swiftly overcame any loyalist resistance. September 28 th, 1821 – Iturbide proclaimed Mexican Independence. Recap - Mexican War of Independence