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Wars of “Religion”. A New Dynasty in France I. 1562 – 1598: a 3 way civil War –A. Valois vs. Huguenots (Protestants) vs. the House of Guise (ultra-Catholics)

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Presentation on theme: "Wars of “Religion”. A New Dynasty in France I. 1562 – 1598: a 3 way civil War –A. Valois vs. Huguenots (Protestants) vs. the House of Guise (ultra-Catholics)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wars of “Religion”

2 A New Dynasty in France I – 1598: a 3 way civil War –A. Valois vs. Huguenots (Protestants) vs. the House of Guise (ultra-Catholics) –B – Henry of Navarre (leader of Huguenots) became Henry IV. 1.began the Bourbon dynasty 2. converted to Catholicism 3. issued the Edict of Nantes

3 Spain’s Golden Age (1550 – 1650) I. Based on wealth from the Americas II. Ruler: Philip II ( ) –A. powerful –B. hardworking, but suspicious and indecisive –C. Defender of Roman Catholicism –1. War against Ottoman Turks - successful –2. Dutch Revolt – unsuccessful –3. Invasion of England – unsuccessful

4 III. Cultural highlight of Spain’s Golden Age –A. art 1. El Greco -- saints and martyrsEl Greco 2. Velazquez – portraits of the royal familyVelazquez –B. Literature -- Cervantes: Don Quixote de la Mancha 1. first modern European novel 2. satire on chivalry Spain’s Golden Age (1550 – 1650)

5 IV. Spain’s glory was short lived –A. influx of gold and silver caused inflation –B. Spain lacked adequate manufacturing - unfavorable balance of trade

6 Dutch Independence I. Why did the Dutch seek independence from Spain? –A. Cultural and religious difference DutchSpain Protestant Catholic Town centered feudal Capitalism manor system, guilds

7 Dutch Independence –B. Spanish oppression 1. to destroy Protestantism 2. to raise money through high taxes

8 Dutch Independence II. Result of Revolt: independence for the northern provinces –led by William of Orange –established religious toleration

9 Dutch Independence III. Cultural result of Dutch prosperity –A. art 1. common theme was groups, and common activities of life. 2. RembrandtRembrandt –-emphasis on light and shadow –group portraits 3. VermeerVermeer –domestic, indoor settings –B. Amsterdam became the “new Florence”

10 30 YEARS WAR (1618 – 1648) I.Causes A.Tensions between Lutheran and Catholic German princes B.Protestant (Calvinist) revolt in Bohemia against Catholic prince Ferdinand (later to be the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II)

11 30 YEARS WAR (1618 – 1648) II. Two phases of war A.Hapsburg triumphs – Ferdinand allowed soldiers to plunder German villages B.Hapsburg Defeats 1.Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden helped change the course of the war 2.France (Cardinal Richelieu) joined the war on the Protestant side

12 30 YEARS WAR (1618 – 1648) III. Results –A. Population of Germany declined by 4 million –B. German economy ruined –C. Peace of Westphalia (1648) 1. Spain and Austria weakened 2. France strengthened; gained German territory 3. German princes became fully independent of the Holy Roman Emperor 4. Calvinism became an accepted faith in the German states –D. German unification would not occur for 200 years

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