2Progressivism “Progressives” = early 20th century reformers Attacked wealth, poverty, government, disease, vice, culture and many other “social ills.”The rise of Socialism, especially from Eastern European immigrants, began to explode, particularly in urban areas.Feminists made especially strong gains with attacks on GovernmentBelieved child labor laws, poor working conditions and safe food products were needed in order to improve conditions for their families.
3“Muckrakers”Authors of hard hitting exposés began circulating in newspapers & magazines which created social pioneers called “muckrakers.”Famous MuckrakersLincoln Steffens and Ida TarbellAttacked trusts, government, Wall Street,Exposed social problems like slums, “white-slaves,” child labor practices, alcohol abuse, drugs, and prostitution.Upton Sinclairexposed filthy conditions within the Chicago meatpacking industry in “The Jungle.”
4Settlement Houses Few people were willing to assist Immigrants Jane Addamsran Hull House (Chicago) to educate and help immigrantsalso fought for women’s right’s (especially suffrage) and later nominated Teddy Roosevelt for PresidentOther settlement houses sprang up and many immigrants were “indoctrinated” into US culture, life and English language
5Battling Social Problems Sanitation, safety and child labor were among the first areas to be reformed.“Sweatshops” dominated the textile industry as mostly women & children worked in horrendous conditions.Emergence of Jim Crow laws in the South, upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized segregation.NAACP, founded by DuBois, worked to end segregation and push for equality for blacks.
6Political Progressivism Progressives belonged to both major parties and were in all regions and levels of Gov’t.Major Goals:Regain political power from “special interest” groupsGet more Americans involved in governmentSignificant ReformsDirect primariesInitiativesReferendums (a bill presented by the people)17th Amendment: direct election of US Senators.18th Amendment: Prohibition (eliminate all alcohol)19th Amendment: Women’s suffrage
7ImperialismNationalistic & Patriotic movements began to spread worldwide.American exports boomed alongside wealth and power.Admiral Thayer Mahan’s book Sea Power, said US needs a strong navy to be a world wide power.Africa, Asia and Pacific islands were scooped up quickly by the world powers.England, Germany, Japan & the US competed for colonies, exports, raw materials and power.A revolution led by Sanford Dole and backed by the US Army seized control of the Hawaiian Islands, which later became a republic then a US territory.
8Cuban Revolt 1890s: Cubans started a revolt against Spanish rule American Reaction: FEAR!Revolt threatened American investmentsGov’t didn’t want a revolt so close to the U.S. (90 miles)President McKinley wanted to maintain peace, but newspapers fanned pro-war flamesResult: Yellow Journalism (sensationalized, biased & often false reporting)Jan The US Gov’t sent the USS Maine to Havana, Cuba as a show of forceFeb. 1898: USS Maine exploded, killing 260 sailorsAmerican journalists blamed the Spanish, called for war
9“Remember the Maine”William Randolph Hearst vs. Joseph Pulitzer: who can furnish the best story?
10“War it is…” April 25, 1898: Congress declared war on Spain Action began in the Philippines as Americans volunteered to join the fightAmerican Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, resigned so he could serve in the warFormed the Rough RidersCongress passed the Teller Amendment which stated that the US would make Cuba “independent.”
11Spanish/American WarLogistical problems such as disease, wool uniforms and transportation plagued the Army.Discovered the need for the Panama CanalMeanwhile, George Dewey destroyed a Spanish fleet and took Manila Bay (Philippines)Army efforts in Cuba suffered from the jungle and heat.Eventually the “Rough Riders” (TR) joined the charge up San Juan Hill and quickly the war was over.
12The Treaty OF Paris, 1898 Dissolved the Spanish empire Cuba placed under American protection (had independence, but was actually under American control)Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake Island became U.S. territoriesSpain surrendered the Philippines for $20 million
13U.S. As a World PowerPres. McKinley was reluctant to keep the Filipinos but chose to “civilize and Christianize the natives”.The Anti-Imperialist League, led by Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Samuel Gompers opposed US imperialism.In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo led the “insurrectos” against the US forces because they were not given their freedom.Thousands died on both sides as atrocity tales shocked Americans including water torture and concentration camps.Millions of dollars were spent rebuilding the country afterwards.Philippines were not given independence until July 4th, 1946, after WWII.
14Puerto Rico / CubaProblems in Puerto Rico & Cuba developed quickly post-war.In the 1901 Insular Cases, the Supreme Court ruled that full Constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American controlIn Cuba, the Platt Amendment stated that the US could intervene in the Cuban Gov’t if necessary and would have a base at Guantanamo Bay (we still do!).US forces would be in and out of Cuba for decades to come…
15McKinley Assassination! In the Election of 1900 William McKinley (Rep.) defeated William Jennings Bryan (Dem.).Main issue: US imperialismMcKinley’s VP was war hero Teddy Roosevelt, who became the 4th “accidental president” when McKinley was assassinatedTR, the youngest President until that time, would recapture the power of the Presidency.
16“Speak softly and carry a big stick” Let’s DiscussExplain the following quote:“Speak softly and carry a big stick”African proverb referenced by Teddy RooseveltAdvises the strategy of caution and non-aggression, backed up by the ability to use violence (aggression) if necessary
17T.R.’s “Square Deal” Teddy Roosevelt, the “trust buster” “trust-busting” was the act of breaking up large corporations that were hurting the country.The Federal Gov’t forced businesses to collective bargaining, increase pay and shorten worker hours.Roosevelt developed a “Square Deal” for laborers with the so-called 3 C’s: “Corporations, Consumers and Conservation.”A coal strike in 1902 caused a shortage causing TR to use the “big stick” as he threatened to run the mines with US troopsSignificance: 1st time the Fed. Gov’t sided with laborers, a major change.
18T.R.’s ContributionsWith the publication The Jungle, TR pushed the Meat Inspection Act and later the Pure Food and Drug Act (today the F.D.A.).Designed to insure proper inspection and purity of meats, foods and drugs.Conservation:TR set aside 250 million acres to conserve US resourcesHelped John Muir begin the Sierra ClubPushed for the creation of more National Parks (Yellowstone already existed)Wanted to protect US timber
19Roosevelt CorollaryFollowing Panama’s independence, TR initiated the digging of the “big ditch” or Panama CanalEurope’s attempts to influence Latin American countries led to the so-called “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine.TR promised “preventative intervention” by the US if we believed it was in our national interest.TR would become the “policeman of the Caribbean” and his “big stick diplomacy” led to years of conflict.Bad Neighbor Policy (Latin American perspective)
20TR & Foreign Relations China The Peacemaker Boxer Rebellion ( ) : members of a secret society tried to free the country from Western influenceEight nations joined together to put down rebellionThe “Open Door Policy” followed as the US wanted to ensure its trading rights in ChinaThe PeacemakerRussia & Japan competed for control of KoreaRoosevelt intervened as the mediator of peace negotiations1906: Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts