Presentation on theme: "Unit 6: Becoming a World Power Chapters 17 & 18. Progressivism “Progressives” = early 20 th century reformers Attacked wealth, poverty, government,"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 6: Becoming a World Power Chapters 17 & 18
Progressivism “Progressives” = early 20 th century reformers Attacked wealth, poverty, government, disease, vice, culture and many other “social ills.” The rise of Socialism, especially from Eastern European immigrants, began to explode, particularly in urban areas. Feminists made especially strong gains with attacks on Government Believed child labor laws, poor working conditions and safe food products were needed in order to improve conditions for their families.
“Muckrakers” Authors of hard hitting exposés began circulating in newspapers & magazines which created social pioneers called “muckrakers.” Famous Muckrakers Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell ○ Attacked trusts, government, Wall Street, ○ Exposed social problems like slums, “white-slaves,” child labor practices, alcohol abuse, drugs, and prostitution. Upton Sinclair ○ exposed filthy conditions within the Chicago meatpacking industry in “The Jungle.”
Settlement Houses Few people were willing to assist Immigrants – Jane Addams ran Hull House (Chicago) to educate and help immigrants also fought for women’s right’s (especially suffrage) and later nominated Teddy Roosevelt for President Other settlement houses sprang up and many immigrants were “indoctrinated” into US culture, life and English language
Battling Social Problems Sanitation, safety and child labor were among the first areas to be reformed. “Sweatshops” dominated the textile industry as mostly women & children worked in horrendous conditions. Emergence of Jim Crow laws in the South, upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized segregation. NAACP, founded by DuBois, worked to end segregation and push for equality for blacks.
Political Progressivism Progressives belonged to both major parties and were in all regions and levels of Gov’t. Major Goals: Regain political power from “special interest” groups Get more Americans involved in government Significant Reforms Direct primaries Initiatives Referendums (a bill presented by the people) 17th Amendment: direct election of US Senators. 18 th Amendment: Prohibition (eliminate all alcohol) 19th Amendment: Women’s suffrage
Imperialism Nationalistic & Patriotic movements began to spread worldwide. American exports boomed alongside wealth and power. Admiral Thayer Mahan’s book Sea Power, said US needs a strong navy to be a world wide power. Africa, Asia and Pacific islands were scooped up quickly by the world powers. England, Germany, Japan & the US competed for colonies, exports, raw materials and power. A revolution led by Sanford Dole and backed by the US Army seized control of the Hawaiian Islands, which later became a republic then a US territory.
Cuban Revolt 1890s: Cubans started a revolt against Spanish rule American Reaction: FEAR! – Revolt threatened American investments – Gov’t didn’t want a revolt so close to the U.S. (90 miles) President McKinley wanted to maintain peace, but newspapers fanned pro-war flames – Result: Yellow Journalism (sensationalized, biased & often false reporting) Jan The US Gov’t sent the USS Maine to Havana, Cuba as a show of force Feb. 1898: USS Maine exploded, killing 260 sailors American journalists blamed the Spanish, called for war
“Remember the Maine” William Randolph Hearst vs. Joseph Pulitzer: who can furnish the best story?
“War it is…” April 25, 1898: Congress declared war on Spain – Action began in the Philippines as Americans volunteered to join the fight – American Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, resigned so he could serve in the war Formed the Rough Riders Congress passed the Teller Amendment which stated that the US would make Cuba “independent.”
Spanish/American War Logistical problems such as disease, wool uniforms and transportation plagued the Army. Discovered the need for the Panama Canal Meanwhile, George Dewey destroyed a Spanish fleet and took Manila Bay (Philippines) Army efforts in Cuba suffered from the jungle and heat. Eventually the “Rough Riders” (TR) joined the charge up San Juan Hill and quickly the war was over.
The Treaty OF Paris, 1898 Dissolved the Spanish empire Cuba placed under American protection (had independence, but was actually under American control) Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake Island became U.S. territories Spain surrendered the Philippines for $20 million
U.S. As a World Power Pres. McKinley was reluctant to keep the Filipinos but chose to “civilize and Christianize the natives”. The Anti-Imperialist League, led by Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Samuel Gompers opposed US imperialism. In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo led the “insurrectos” against the US forces because they were not given their freedom. – Thousands died on both sides as atrocity tales shocked Americans including water torture and concentration camps. Millions of dollars were spent rebuilding the country afterwards. Philippines were not given independence until July 4th, 1946, after WWII.
Puerto Rico / Cuba Problems in Puerto Rico & Cuba developed quickly post-war. In the 1901 Insular Cases, the Supreme Court ruled that full Constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control In Cuba, the Platt Amendment stated that the US could intervene in the Cuban Gov’t if necessary and would have a base at Guantanamo Bay (we still do!). US forces would be in and out of Cuba for decades to come…
McKinley Assassination! In the Election of 1900 William McKinley (Rep.) defeated William Jennings Bryan (Dem.). Main issue: US imperialism McKinley’s VP was war hero Teddy Roosevelt, who became the 4 th “accidental president” when McKinley was assassinated TR, the youngest President until that time, would recapture the power of the Presidency.
Let’s Discuss Explain the following quote: “Speak softly and carry a big stick” African proverb referenced by Teddy Roosevelt Advises the strategy of caution and non- aggression, backed up by the ability to use violence (aggression) if necessary
T.R.’s “Square Deal” Teddy Roosevelt, the “trust buster” “trust-busting” was the act of breaking up large corporations that were hurting the country. The Federal Gov’t forced businesses to collective bargaining, increase pay and shorten worker hours. Roosevelt developed a “Square Deal” for laborers with the so-called 3 C’s: “Corporations, Consumers and Conservation.” A coal strike in 1902 caused a shortage causing TR to use the “big stick” as he threatened to run the mines with US troops Significance: 1st time the Fed. Gov’t sided with laborers, a major change.
T.R.’s Contributions With the publication The Jungle, TR pushed the Meat Inspection Act and later the Pure Food and Drug Act (today the F.D.A.). Designed to insure proper inspection and purity of meats, foods and drugs. Conservation: TR set aside 250 million acres to conserve US resources Helped John Muir begin the Sierra Club Pushed for the creation of more National Parks (Yellowstone already existed) Wanted to protect US timber
Roosevelt Corollary Following Panama’s independence, TR initiated the digging of the “big ditch” or Panama Canal Europe’s attempts to influence Latin American countries led to the so-called “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine. TR promised “preventative intervention” by the US if we believed it was in our national interest. TR would become the “policeman of the Caribbean” and his “big stick diplomacy” led to years of conflict. – Bad Neighbor Policy (Latin American perspective)
TR & Foreign Relations China – Boxer Rebellion ( ) : members of a secret society tried to free the country from Western influence – Eight nations joined together to put down rebellion – The “Open Door Policy” followed as the US wanted to ensure its trading rights in China The Peacemaker – Russia & Japan competed for control of Korea – Roosevelt intervened as the mediator of peace negotiations – 1906: Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts