Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Notes Isolationism is disappearing/Imperialism emerging Imperialism Many began looking beyond our borders(population, wealth, production-labor."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 27 Notes Isolationism is disappearing/Imperialism emerging Imperialism Many began looking beyond our borders(population, wealth, production-labor violence & agrarian unrest-Overseas markets Yellow Press contributed-adventures of expansion Overseas missions-spread superior values to “backward” people- superiority of Anglo-Saxons(Rev J. Strong-Our Country: Its Possible Future & Present Crisis) Teddy Roosevelt/Henry Cabot Lodge expressed Darwinism Alfred Thayer Mahan-Influence of Sea Power Upon History- helped to stimulate Naval competition New international interest-James G. Blaine-”Big Sister Policy”- open L. American markets to America
Incidents emerging from aggressive attitudes: US & German navies-1889-Samoan Islands Lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans-1891 1892-death of 2 US sailors in Chile-damages paid Argument over hunting rights in Pribilof Islands off Alaska resolved in 1893 New Aggressive Mood!
Monroe Doctrine & Venezuelan Squall Anti-British feeling flared in 1895-96 over Venezuela-Jungle of British Guiana & Venezuela under dispute Venezuelans made strong claims which went our the door once gold was found President Cleveland/Sec of State Olney presented London w/letter claiming they were in violation of the Monroe Doctrine- London needed to submit to arbitration & we were calling the shots in the Western Hemisphere Britain took 4 months to respond-rejected Doctrine and arbitration Cleveland sent a special message to Congress to put together a commission of where the boundary should go-if Britain would not accept we would fight(War?) Sober minds prevailed-Germany-S. Africa-Britain Monroe Doctrine enhanced
Hawaii Long attracted the attention of US-1820 first missionaries Some saw as an extension of US coastline-1840s State Department warned others to stay out-Reciprocity in 1875-1887 naval rights to Pearl Harbor TROUBLE: 1890 McKinley Tariff raised barriers vs. sugar-white planters thought US should annex-Queen L. insisted natives should rule-tiny white minority led a successful revolt in in 1893 assisted by American forces Grover Cleveland thought we had wronged Queen L. and withdrew treaty from Senate and sent investigators to Hawaii Majority of natives did not support annexation yet Americans did-put off for 5 years
Cuban Revolt Roots of revolt economic and in the US-1894 Tariff Adopted a scorched earth policy-damage enough and Spain would move out and US would help-insurrectos Us sided with the Patriots-investment of $50 million -$100 million in trade-Spanish misrule also harmed shipping routes & future canal 1896 Spanish Gen. “Butcher” Weyler herded many into barbed wire concentration camps to keep many from helping the resistance-many died! Congress in 1896 asked Grover Cleveland to recognize the Patriots-he would not
Maine “Yellow Journalism” ruled the day-exaggerated events-Weyler removed in 1897 yet conditions worsened Spain talked of some self-government in Cuba yet Spaniards resisted 1898 US sent Maine to Cuba to evacuate Americans if needed Spanish minister in DC wrote a letter about McKinley saying he was an “ear to the ground politician”-De Lome letter Feb 15, 1898 Maine blew up in Havana Harbor-260 US sailors died Who was responsible? American reaction?
McKinley & War US diplomats had worked-1.) End reconcentration camps 2.) Armistice between Spain and rebels McKinley pressured to ask for declaration of war McKinley did not trust Spain, believed in Democracy & give people what they wanted Congress declared war in April, 1898 w/ Teller Amendment?
Victory American people plunged lightly into war-Ready? Spain’s dominance on paper? Navy prepared-TR took over for Sec of Navy John Long-cabled Comm. George Dewey to move on Philippines in event of war- moved to Manila in May of 1898 destroyed Spanish fleet Imperialist Plums Dewey had destroyed fleet yet could not move on Forts of Manila-had to wait for reinforcements Foreign warships began to gather to protect nationals in Manila British helped ease hostilities between US and Germany August 13, 1898-US forces finally arrived and took forts-Joint Resolution-Hawaii on July 7, 1898-McKinley approved- residents of Hawaii granted full citizenship rights & full territorial status in 1900
Cuban Invasion Shortly after we declared war Spain sent a fleet to Cuba- Problems! Panic seized Eastern US & government had to dispatch old worthless ships for marale Blockade by US yet invasion struggled-led by Wllm Shafter yet unprepared for war in the tropics Rough Riders emerged-led by TR-Political pull landed him the spot since he was so nearsighted Great success for US-not much opposition
End for Spain American fleet closing in on Spanish fleet-Spanish fleet destroyed-500 Spaniards died-Signed armistice Aug 12, 1898 If Spain could have held out? US was dying due to other factors 400 died from bullets-5,000 from sickness
McKinley Heeds Duty 1898 negotiations began: easily picked up Guam & Puerto Rico-Biggest problem was the Philippines-larger that British Isles-7 million people McKinley felt we could not free them from Spain & just leave Maybe Germany would take over and give freedom later Missionaries eager for new converts, Wall Street wanted profits-A “Voice” told McKinley to take all of the Philippines & Christianize, and civilize Manila was captured the day after the armistice-deadlock broken when US agreed to pay Spain $20 million
America’s Empire Growing Empire and we had acquired about all we would end with Anti-Imperialist League sprang up-many prominent members Filipinos desired freedom-would we deny them that? Imperialists:trade profits, natural resources, must uplift! In Senate the treaty was hotly debated-WJ Bryan threw his support behind and barely passed
Puerto Rico/Cuba Foraker Act of 1900-allowed limited amount of popular government-in 1917 granted Puerto Rico US citizenship-helped to modernize & still many wanted independence Legal Issues? 1901-Insular Cases-Filipinos & Puerto Ricans may be subject to US rule yet did not enjoy US rights Cuba-US government(military) set up under Gen. Leonard Wood & brought much advancement-went after cure for yellow fever(Dr Walter Reed)-mosquitoes carried US withdrew in 1902(Teller Amendment)-wrote own constitution which included the Platt Amendment: not to impair themselves w/treaty, not contracting debt beyond resources, US could intervene w/ troops to restore order & protect, promised to sell coaling and naval stations(Guantanamo-28,000 acre beachhead)
New Horizons Spanish War-Coming Out Party---World Power! War lasted 113 days-more respect from Europe New Spirit(Souza)-”Splendid Little War”-rush to empire Ally-Britain, L. America-suspicious, Germany-envious Philippines made US a far eastern power-unwilling to defend dangerous commitments Mahan’s big navy seemed vindicated Elihu Root took over War Department-established a general staff & War College End of Bloody Chasm between N & S Many Southerners fought under General Joe Wheeler-Union cavalry hero Makers of America