Constitution of the Year III Conservative, monarchist victory. e Elections are nullified. e Martial law is imposed. e Creates the Directory and institutionalized the Thermidorean Reaction. * 5-man oligarchy. [avoid a dictatorship]
Characteristics of the Directory The Paris Commune was outlawed. e The Law of 22 Prairial was revoked. e People involved in the original Terror were now attacked. --> “White” Terror e Inflation continues. e R ule by rich bourgeois liberals. e Self-indulgence --> frivolous culture; salons return; wild fashions. e Political corruption. e Revival of Catholicism.
18 Brumaire [Nov. 9] Coup d’état by Napoleon. e Approved by a plebiscite in December. e Abbe Sieyes: Confidence from below; authority from above. e
Political Instability: 1795-1796 e April, 1795 --> Inflation; bread riots. e October, 1795 --> Revolt of the right. * Vendée and Brittany revolted. * military suppressed them. e May, 1796 --> First “communist” revolt * Gracchus Babeuf and the “Conspiracy of Equals”
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES o “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.” http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/ chron/rch5.htm http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/ chron/rch5.htm http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/ chron/rch5.htm o “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the French Revolution.” http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/ http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/ o Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction: Europe, 1789-1849. Cambridge University Press, 2001. o “The Napoleonic Guide.” http://www.napoleonguide.com/index.htm http://www.napoleonguide.com/index.htm