2NATO vs. Warsaw Pact NATO Warsaw Pact Settle disputes peacefully using the UNMembers will defend each otherEstablish a council of membersNew members can joinIncludes a requirement to reduce armaments and prohibits weapons of mass destructionBetween communist countries in EuropeMade in 1955No longer existsWants to strengthen democracyAgreement between North Atlantic countriesMade in 1949Still exists
3Read “Who’s to Blame for the Cold War?” on p. 906 in AP and take notes OrthodoxRevisionistRadical RevisionistPost-revisionist
5Students will be able to explain and analyze Ideological differences and oppositionMutual suspicion and fearSuperpowers and spheres of influenceAlliances and diplomacyContainment, brinkmanship, peaceful coexistence, and détenteUNArms Race, proliferation and limitation
7Sample Paper 2 Questions Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.Analyse the origin of the East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War.For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affect Cold War development?Explain the meaning of 2 of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; détente.
8Sample QuestionsFor what reasons, and with what results, were the disagreements between participants at the conferences of Yalta and Potsdam in 1945?Define and analyse the importance of two of the following: (a) the formation of NATO; (b) the Warsaw Pact; (c) non-alignment; (d) détente.
9Key Terms Berlin Blockade Suez Crisis Hungarian Uprising U-2 Incident Berlin WallPrague SpringBrezhnev Doctrine
10Lecture Outline I. US Loans II. Truman Doctrine III. Marshall Plan IV. Berlin BlockadeV. The Suez Crisis and the Hungarian RevoltVI. U-2 IncidentVII. Prague Spring and the Brezhnev Doctrine
12US LoansIn January 1945 Stalin requested a $6 billion post-war recovery loan for the Soviet Union.The US State Department refused to discuss the matter unless Stalin became more receptive to US demands in Europe.Later in 1945 the Soviets asked for a $1 billion loan. The official US government explanation to this day is that the request was “lost.”
13US LoansWhen it was “found” months later, the State Department offered to discuss the loan if the Soviets would pledge “non-discrimination in international commerce” allowing US investment and goods into Eastern Europe.The US had loaned Great Britain $4 billion and France $1 billion.
14Truman DoctrineAt the UN Security Council in January 1946, the Soviet Union condemned persecutions of leftists in Greece—1,219 of them had been assassinated and 18,767 arrested.A civil war in Greece began in March 1946.Over 600,000 Greeks were killed from 1940 to 1949.Resulted in the Truman Doctrine and $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey.Read Iron Curtain Speech
15Marshall Plan $5 billion was appropriated in April 1948. By 1952 when military aid began to replace economic assistance, the US has expended nearly $14 billion to promote European recovery.Europe’s economic productivity increased by nearly 200% from 1948 to 1952.
16Berlin BlockadeOn June 23, 1948 the US introduced West German currency into West Berlin.The Soviets established a blockade on all road, rail, and barge traffic into the city.The West set up a counter-blockade on the movement of goods from the Eastern Europe into West Germany.The American and British supplied West Berlin with an airlift, flying 5,000 tons of goods a day.
18Berlin Blockade In July 1948 the US sent 2 groups of B-29s to Britain. In April 1949 the US and 11 other nations created NATO.On May 12, 1949 the Soviets ended their blockade of Berlin.
19Suez CrisisIn late 1955 the President of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, negotiated a weapons deal with Communist Czechoslovakia that seemed to threaten US influence in the Middle East.The US offered Egypt technical and financial aid to build the Aswan Dam.In July 1956, after Nasser refused to repudiate the Czech arms deal and recognized Communist China.The US pulled their offer.
20Suez CrisisNasser immediately nationalized the Suez Canal which gave him the $25 million annual profit from the canal operation.In September 1956 Britain, France and Israel signed a secret agreement in which the Israeli army agreed to a fake an assault on the Canal. In return, the Israelis would receive British and French air and naval support as its armed forces attacked and destroyed Egypt’s army in Sinai and opened the Straits of Tiran.
21Suez Crisis In October 1956 Israel invaded Egypt. It quickly destroyed the Egyptian army and captured most of the Sinai Peninsula.On October 30, 1956 the Europeans began to bomb Egyptian targets.The US introduced a resolution in the UN General Assembly urging a truce and imposed an oil embargo on Britain and France.The British and French agreed to a ceasefire and a quick withdrawal from Egypt.
23Hungarian RevoltOct. 23, 1956 Hungarian students began protests that demanded the removal of the Red Army from Hungary and the creation of an anti-Communist political party.October 28 Soviet troops leave Budapest.Voice of America and Radio Free Europe encouraged the rebels and the US promised economic aid to those countries that broke free from the Soviet sphere.
24Hungarian RevoltOctober 31 Imre Nagy announced that Hungary was withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.Soviets used the Suez Crisis as a cover and moved the Red Army back into Budapest.7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians died. 50,000 Hungarians fled the country.Nagy was executed.Eisenhower never contemplated helping Hungary.
25March 8—Write an identification for the Hungarian revolt.
26The U-2 IncidentIn 1956 the US started a series of flights over the Soviet Union in high-altitude photograph airplanes called U-2s.In September 1959 Khrushchev visited the US and he and Eisenhower agreed to hold a summit meeting in Paris in May 1960.On the eve of the summit, Khrushchev announced that the Soviets had shot down a U-2 plan over the Soviet Union.Khrushchev produced the pilot, Francis Gary Powers, and the conference was ruined.
27Berlin WallOn August 13, 1961 Khrushchev decided to build the Berlin Wall.
28The Prague SpringIn October 1964 the Politburo removed Khrushchev from power and Leonid Brezhnev became the leader of the Soviet Union.In January 1968 Alexander Dubcek became the leader of Czechoslovakia.
29The Prague SpringThe increased liberalization of the Czechoslovakian economy and society became known as “the Prague Spring.”In August 1968, 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia.
30Brezhnev DoctrineIn November 1968 Brezhnev defended the invasion of Czechoslovakia in a speech that later became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine, which stated that the USSR would define the “correct” form of socialism, and no Eastern European country would be allowed to deviate from the Soviet view, leave the Warsaw Pact, or overthrow the Communist Party’s monopoly on power.