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Introduction to US History Historical Methods Periodization Themes.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to US History Historical Methods Periodization Themes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to US History Historical Methods Periodization Themes

2 HM: The Problem of Evidence Primary Secondary Tertiary Bias

3 HM: The Problem of Objectivity Source Bias Historian Bias Is Objective History Possible?

4 HM: The Problem of Causation Great Men? Impersonal Forces

5 HM: The Problem of Motives Deciphering Witness Statements Lack of Witness Statements Actions Speak Louder Than Words Economic vs. Idealistic

6 Themes Land Hunger and Agriculture The Ever Moving Frontier and Social Class Indian Relations Foreign Entanglements The Development of American Democracy The Sectionalization of America The Shadow of the Civil War

7 Periodization: Colonial America (1492-1783) Economy: Agriculture Political: Propertied People Vote Religion: Only New England is very religious. Slavery: Exists in all colonies. Social: Fronteir vs. Settled Areas

8 Periodization: Early Republic (1783-1828) Economy: Agriculture, growing foreign trade. Political: Increased Democracy For White Men. Religion: Second Great Awakening Slavery: Sectional Differentiation Social: Growing Classes but Frontiersmen defy this.

9 Periodization: Antebellum America (1828-1860) Economy: Industrial North; Slave Agricultural South Political: Universal White Manhood Suffrage Religion: Catholic vs. Protestant. Slavery: North grows Anti-Slavery; South defends it fanatically. Social: Rise of the Middle Class and gender ideologies

10 Periodization: Civil War (1861-1865) and Reconstruction (1865-1877) Economy: Industry triumphs. Political: Blacks gain right to vote, though often denied it. Religion: Rise of the Black Churches. Slavery: Slavery is abolished. Social: Veterans dominate society for the rest of the century.

11 The World in 1500

12 Rise of Nation States: Absolute Monarchy: France Hundred Year’s War French Absolutism, Taxes, and Military Power France will dominate Europe by 1650

13 Rise of Nation States: Limited Monarchy: England Defeat in the Hundred Year's War England in Decline: –International Impotence –Limited Monarchy, Taxes, and Military Power –But Rising Trade

14 Rise of Nation States: International Empire: Spain Spain and International Empire –Charles V: King of Many Nations –Absolute Monarchy + Wealth of the Americas –Most Catholic King

15 Rise of Nation States: International Empire: Spain Spain and International Empire Charles V: King of Many Nations Absolute Monarchy + Wealth of the Americas Most Catholic King

16 Rise of Nation States: Republic: The Netherlands Cutting Edge of Capitalism Cash Crops International Colonies. Joint-Stock Companies The Dutch are a semi-democratic Republic.

17 The Dutch Revolt

18 Rise of Nations: The Dutch Revolt Protestant Revolt: The Dutch also become one of the first Protestant nations, leading to revolt against Spain This leads to 80 years of war with Spain, sapping Spain Dutch finance enables the Dutch to field armies which can fight.Spain on even terms.


20 The Rise of Nation States: Rising Anarchy: Holy Roman Empire Early Strength: Late Medieval Decline: Fragmentation: Reformation:

21 The Reformation: Problems of Renaissance Catholicism Temporal Power: Rising Heresies: Monastic Corruption: The Indulgences Issue:

22 The Reformation: Martin Luther Origins: Luther was a German Augustinian monk, who came to feel he wasn't holy enough despite being a monk, and who came to criticize the Church, leading to him nailing the famous 95 Theses (a list of complaints about the Church) to the door of his local cathedral. His Protests: –Sale of Indulgences –The Focus on Penances and Works as key to salvation –The refusal to translate the Bible into modern languages.


24 The Reformation: Luther’s Theology Salvation by Faith An End to Celibacy Sola Scriptura His Impact: Luther shattered the unity of the Western Church and opened the way for the creation of the several thousand Protestant denominations which exist today.

25 The Reformation: Anglicanism The Quest for Heirs: The Split with the Church: Impact:

26 The Reformation: The Wars of Religion The Holy Roman Empire Self Destructs: The Dutch Revolt: Habsburgs Bankrupt Spain: England and France Torn by Dissension:

27 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: The Silk Road and the Spice Trade The Silk Road The Rise of Islam and the Silk and Spice Routes The Fall of Constantinople

28 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: The Rise of Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator (March 4, 1394–November 13, 1460): This Portuguese prince played a crucial role in the beginning of Portuguese explorations by providing funding and gathering experts to strengthen Portuguese shipping and navigation. Technical Innovations: –The Caravel –Square and Lateen sails –The Compass –Gunpowder


30 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: Portugal and the East The Rounding of Africa: In 1488, Bartholemew Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope. The problem of the Indian Ocean

31 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: Africa in 1500--Problems Climate and Disease: Semi-Isolation: Lack of Science: –Low Literacy –Few cities –Few schools –Little access to Arabic and Greco-Roman philosophy and scholarship


33 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: Africa in 1500--Society Sub-Saharan Trade Route Empires –Mali (1235 to 1645 AD) Tributary Empire Centralized military Large cities Moslem Rule African Artisanry –Done by hand, not mass produced –Luxury items for the wealthy and export

34 Rise of International Trade and Exploration: Africa in 1500--Economics African Trade –Europeans want slaves, gold, ivory, tropical produce –Africans want cloth, alcohol, firearms, metal tools African Slavery –Not necessarily for life –War captives or punishment for crime –Not based on race European Slave Trade in Africa –Driven by need for labor in the New World –Coastal Africans sell interior Africans to Europeans for goods

35 The Isolated Americas: Initial Migration Conditions The Last Ice Age: Ended somewhere around 13,000 BC. Patterns of Migration: Push South in Waves

36 The Isolated Americas: Technological Isolation Stone age arrival Low levels of trade between regions Contrast to Europe/Asia/Africa

37 The Isolated Americas: Bio-Deficiencies Lack of Draft Animals Fewer indigenous diseases Cultural Impacts


39 Dominant Cultures: Aztecs The Valley of Mexico The Rise of the Aztecs The Aztec Empire

40 Aztec Religion and Society Huitzilopochtli (Sun God) Human Sacrifice Tenochtitlan Aztec Society Aztec Economy –Cacao + Cotton 'Money' Aztec Warfare Women in Aztec Society

41 Aztec Warfare


43 Aztec Technology


45 Dominant Cultures: Incas Would you walk 2,600 miles? Absolute Monarchy –Mountain Irrigation –Primitive Socialism –Labor Taxes –State Employees Dress Codes

46 Inca Technology Expert Stonemasons Expert Irrigators Long-Distance Road and Communications Network No writing system (just a knot code) Stone age weaponry Little metalworking



49 Dominant Cultures: North America Forest Tribes Mound Builders Plains Tribes Great Basin Tribes Pacific Northwest Arid Southwest


51 The Colombian Exchange: Columbus The Portuguese Monopoly Columbus’ plan What Columbus Did Beginning of Spanish Colonization

52 The Colombian Exchange: The Conquistadores The Fall of Mexico The Fall of the Incas The Limits of Spanish Expansion

53 The Colombian Exchange: The Ravages of Disease Thresholds of Disease How Plagues Spread Demographic Catastrophe

54 The Colombian Exchange: Plants Americas to Africa and Europe –The Potato –Corn –Beans and Peppers Africa and Europe to the Americas: –The Yam –Wheat and Spices –Alcohol

55 The Colombian Exchange: Animals Europe to Americas: Horse, Cattle, Pigs, Goats, Chickens Americas to Europe: Turkey Improved Agriculture Improved Nomad Lifestyles

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