Presentation on theme: "America Claims an Empire Ms. Sculley-Ellett. Imperialism and America Main Idea Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition."— Presentation transcript:
America Claims an Empire Ms. Sculley-Ellett
Imperialism and America Main Idea Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition caused the United States to expand.
American Expansionism ► America had always sought to expand the size of their nation. ► America to join imperialist power in Europe and establish colonies overseas. ► Imperialism- policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
Global Competition ► Africa was a prime target of European expansionism. Ethiopia and Liberia- remained independent ► Imperialist competed for Asia Japan joined European nations in competition
World Colonial Empires, 1900
Three Factors Fueled the New American Imperialism Three Factors Military Strength Had to catch up with Europe. The Great White Fleet. Economic Benefits Need for raw materials New markets for goods National Supremacy Social Darwinism Spread Christianity “Civilize” people
The U.S. Acquires Alaska ► William Seward- Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ► U.S. to buy Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia “Seward’s Icebox”, “Seward’s Folly” 1959 became a state. About 2 cents an acre. Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.
The U.S. Takes Hawaii ► U.S. took over the Midway Islands just north of Hawaii ► Hawaii was economically and militarily important. U.S. & Hawaii Cry for Annexation Duty Free Sugar 1887-Pearl Harbor End of a Monarchy John L. Stevens Sanford D. Dole 1898-Hawaii annexed th State
Imperialism and America Review ► What three factors spurred American imperialism? Economic Benefits Military Strength National Superiority
Foreign Influence in China ► Weakened by war and foreign intervention, China became vulnerable to foreign countries. Jon Hay Open Door Notes Boxer Rebellion Protecting Am. Rights
Protecting American Rights/Boxer Rebellion ► Open Door Policy reflected three deeply held American beliefs about the U.S. industrial capitalist economy: U.S. growth depended upon exports U.S. had right to intervene to keep foreign markets open Closing areas to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival. ► What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and how was it crushed? The Boxers staged a revolt to expel foreigners from China. In August 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S. marched on the Chinese capital. The International force put an end to the rebellion.
Japan ► 1853: Commodore Matthew Perry enters Japanese Harbor. ► 1854: Japan opened trade with US Leads to modernization ► 1904: Russo Japanese War (Manchuria) Treaty of Portsmouth; TR Nobel Prize ► 1907: TR and the Great White Fleet
Spanish-American War Main Idea In 1898, the United States went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. Why it Matters Today U.S. involvement in Latin America and Asia increased greatly as a result of the war and continuous today.
Cubans Rebel Against Spain ► By the end of the 19 th century-Spain had lost most of its colonies. It retained only the Philippines and the island of Guam, some outposts in Africa, and the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Preludes to War America interested in Sugar Cubans revolt 1868 & 1878 Revolt not successful Abolished slavery-1886 Jose Marti- Cuba Libre! Americans were split on the issue
War Fever Escalates ► Spain responded by sending General Valeriano Weyler to suppress the Cuban revolt. War Fever Yellow Journalism De Lome Letter USS Maine Explodes
War with Spain ► America attacks in the Philippines April 30, Commodore George Dewey opened fire on the Spanish fleet at Manila 7 hours to capture the fleet. Americans join Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
War with Spain: Pacific Theater
War in the Caribbean War in the Caribbean Rough Riders San Juan Hill Treaty Of Paris
War with Spain: Caribbean
Treaty of Paris Debate ► Debate over annexation of the Philippines ► Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist League ► February, ratification of peace treaty makes U.S. a colonizing nation
American Empire, 1900
The Spanish-American War Review ► Why was American opinion about Cuban independence divided? U.S. businessmen sided with Spain because they wanted to protect their investments. The Americans, however, sympathized with the Cuban demand for independence. ► Briefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of Cuba’s independence; Spain’s relinquishing of Puerto Rico and Guam demand for independence.
Cuba and the United States ► U.S. recognized Cuba’s independence and passed the Teller Amendment. Stated the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. Cuba & U.S American SoldiersPlatt Amendment Couldn’t make treaties U.S. could intervene Cuba no debt U.S. could lease land Protecting American Business Interest
Filipinos Rebel ► Emilio Aguilnaldo- rebel leader ► Philippine-American War Feb rose to revolt 70,000 U.S. troops sent- majority African- Americans Took nearly 3 years to put down the rebellion. ► Aftermath of the War Government set up much like Puerto Rico Finally became independent on July 4, 1946.
Ruling Puerto Rico ► After the Spanish-American war, the United States didn’t promise Puerto Ricans independence. 1900: Foraker Act: established that the US would Appt. Governor and Upper House of the Legislature. Puerto Ricans would elect lower house. 1917: law grants US citizenship to Puerto Ricans. Allowed to elect all of the Legislature 1952: becomes a self governing commonwealth of the US. Today: Power over its own domestic affairs, but US controls interstate trade, immigration and the military.
The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains ► Anti-imperialist vs. Imperialist McKinley is re-elected-strong imperialist Anti-Imperialist League ► Included prominent officials
Puerto Rico ► Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico? Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way to assert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting a possible canal through Panama.
Teddy Roosevelt and the World ► The assassination of William McKinley in 1901 thrust Vice-President Teddy Roosevelt into the role of a world leader. Roosevelt & The World Roosevelt Peacemaker 1904-Russia declares War on Japan Treaty of Portsmouth Panama Canal Hay-Pauncefote Treaty-1901 $10 million + $250,000 annually
Roosevelt and Panama ► Constructing the Canal Builders battled disease Workers were from Spain, Italy; ¾ were blacks from the West Indies; 5,600 died from accidents or disease August 15, Canal opened
Dominican Republic ► Roosevelt Corollary “Speak softly and carry a big stick” Roosevelt Corollary-U.S. would use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America In the DR, they were unable to pay its European lenders. US intervened.
Nicaragua ► Dollar Diplomacy American banker loaned money to Nicaragua to pay debts. Bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s state- owned railroad system and its national bank. People revolted against Pres. Adolfo Diaz. Taft administration used the policy of using U.S. government loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople. Dollar Diplomacy.
Mexico and Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy ► Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warned against any nations expanding their influence in Latin America. ► Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”, had a moral responsibility to deny any Latin American government it viewed oppressive, or hostile to U.S. interest. Missionary Diplomacy Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz overthrown Gen. Victoriano Huerta Intervention in Mexico Wilson invades Veracruz Venustiano Carranza Rebellion in Mexico “Pancho” Villa Emiliano Zapata
Activities of the United States in the Caribbean,
Chasing Villa ► President Wilson ordered Gen. John Pershing an about 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa dead or alive. ► Troops clash with Mexican army in ► Pershing is ordered home in ► U.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policy goals in the early 20 th century. Expanded access to foreign markets U.S. built a modern day navy U.S. exercised its police power to ensure dominance in Latin America