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NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS 1789-1900 Chapter 24. PART 1 CHAPTER 24 NOTES.

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Presentation on theme: "NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS 1789-1900 Chapter 24. PART 1 CHAPTER 24 NOTES."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS Chapter 24

2 PART 1 CHAPTER 24 NOTES

3 COLONIAL SOCIETY DIVIDED Peninsulares—born in Spain, they head colonial government, society Creoles—American-born Spaniards who can become army officers Mestizos—have both European and Indian (Native American) ancestry Mulattos—Have both European and African ancestry Slaves, Indians are at the bottom of society

4 SOCIAL CLASSES IN SPANISH COLONIES

5 REVOLUTION IN HAITI Haiti is first Latin American territory to gain freedom Toussaint L’Ouverture leads slave revolt against French in Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1791 Toussaint eventually dies in French prison in 1803 Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Haiti a country in 1804

6 CREOLES LEAD INDEPENDENCE Simón Bolívar—wealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution José de San Martín—leader of Argentinean revolutionary forces Bolivar achieved independence for Colombia in 1819 and Venezuela in 1821 San Martin liberated Argentina in 1816 and many parts of Spanish- speaking South America, including Chile, by 1817

7 MEXICO ENDS SPANISH RULE Miguel Hidalgo—priest who launches Mexican revolt (1810) 80,000 Indian and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City José María Morelos—leads revolt after Hidalgo’s defeat, but loses Mexican Creoles want independence from Spain Agustin de Iturbide declares Mexico independent in 1821

8 BRAZIL’S INDEPENDENCE In 1822, Creoles demanded Brazil’s independence from Portugal 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking Dom Pedro (King John VI of Portugal’s son) to rule September 7, 1822 – Dom Pedro declares Brazil independent with no bloodshed

9 CLASH OF PHILOSOPHIES IN EUROPE Conservatives—landowners, nobles want traditional monarchies Liberals—wealthy merchants, business owners want limited democracy, want to give more power to elected parliaments Radicals—believe in liberty, equality; want everyone to have a vote During the 19 th century, Europe experienced a conflict between conservatives and liberals, a resurgence of conservatives over liberals, and the decline of established empires By 1849, most of Europe was under control of the conservatives

10 NATIONALISM Nationalism—loyalty to nation of people with common culture and history; loyalty should not be to a king Nationalism tore apart centuries-old empires and gave rise to the nation-state Nation-state—nation with its own independent government In 1815 Europe, only France, England, and Spain are nation-states Liberals and radicals support nationalism; conservatives do not

11 NATIONALISTS CHALLENGE CONSERVATIVE POWER Greece gets Britain, France, and Russia help to gain independence from Ottoman Turks in 1827 Greece becomes independent in 1830 Belgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts that are all crushed in 1830 In 1848, there are ethnic uprisings in Europe, especially in the Austrian empire Liberals hold power for short time, lose to conservatives by 1849 These uprisings resulted in the resignation of Metternich as ruler of Austria

12 REFORMS IN FRANCE In 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restore absolute monarchy In 1848, Paris mob overthrows monarchy, sets up republic 1848 constitution calls for elected president and parliament Louis-Napoleon—Napoleon’s nephew—elected president Later takes the title of emperor (Napoleon III), promotes industrialization

13 REFORMS IN RUSSIA Alexander II—czar who determines to make social and economic changes In 1861, Alexander II issues the Edict of Emancipation - czar frees serfs, but debt keeps them on the same land Reform halts when Alexander is assassinated by terrorists in 1881 Driven by nationalism, Alexander III encourages industrialization Russia and France were similar in that they both encouraged industrialization

14 ITALIAN UNIFICATION Camillo di Cavour—prime minister of kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1852; expands his kingdom’s power and unifies Italy Gets French help to win control of Austrian-controlled Italian land; Austria lost the most land as a result of Italian unification Giuseppe Garibaldi—leads nationalists called the Red Shirts who conquer southern Italy Italians use military forces to conquer the Papal States in 1870 Rome comes under Italian control and becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Italy

15 GERMAN UNIFICATION Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany mainly German population powerful army creation of liberal constitution The expansion of Prussia was achieved under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck

16 BISMARCK UNITES GERMANY Junkers—conservative wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm I Junker Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister Bismarck originated the political style known as Realpolitik Realpolitik—power politics without room for idealism Bismarck defies Prussian parliament He directly violated the Prussian constitution by ruling with out the consent of parliament and a legal budget Prussia and Austria fight Denmark and gain two provinces as a result Quick victory makes other German nations respect Prussia

17 MAP OF PRUSSIA

18 SEVEN WEEKS’ WAR Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war in 1866 Prussia seizes Austrian territory and northern Germany Eastern and western parts of Prussian kingdom joined for first time

19 FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans by claiming French ambassador insulted Prussian king Bismarck gains support from Germans in the south French declare war on Prussia in 1870 French are defeated and surrender Wilhelm I is crowned kaiser (emperor of a united Germany) at Versailles in January 1871

20 A SHIFT IN POWER Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance Germans called their empire the Second Reich; this empire was achieved through ruthless leadership Germany and Italy both unified various territories through military force By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically

21 PART 2 REGENTS NOTES

22 NATIONALISM Nationalism = loyalty of a people to their values, traditions, and a geographic region Prussia – Otto von Bismarck inspired nationalism and unified Germany through military force Blood and Iron – phrase used to describe Bismarck’s unification of Germany Italy – Giuseppe Garibaldi also inspired nationalism and helped to unify the kingdom of Italy The unification of Italy and Germany upset the balance of power in Europe during the 19 th century

23 LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE The American and French Revolutions influenced Latin American independence movements of the 1800s The French Revolution provided ideas for making political changes Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Jose de San Martin all led independence movements

24 MAP OF LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE

25 SIMON BOLIVAR Simon Bolivar proposed a democratic government for Venezuela He encouraged nationalism He opposed the encomienda system and believed Latin America needed landholding reforms


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