Presentation on theme: "The Idea That Was Rome I. The Origins of Rome. A. Relevance of Roman History to the Past and Present West 1. Greeks v. Romans: inclusiveness 2. Western."— Presentation transcript:
Fear of Slave Revolt 73 BC - Spartacus leads slave revolt; 70,000 Required 3 Roman armies to defeat him Led to “hysteria” among free Romans Crassus v. Pompey: origins of dictatorship
C. the Equestrian Class 1. Growing power through non-traditional means “new men” - officers, merchants, aristocrats of the empire
D. Senate instransigience 1. The Gracchus brothers (see Plutarch) 2. Public display
E. Religion 1. No specific caste of priests 2. Each family had its own gods, spirits - ancestor worship 3. Romans adopted other gods, ie the Greeks
4. State intolerant of non-sanctioned religions Cult of Isis, Bacchus
Persecution of the Cult of Bacchus was endemic of larger problems - growing class disparity; slavery - traditional male status in decline - no unifying public religion - Patricians hostile to any reform EAMUS CATULI!
5. Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 BC 6. Renewed War: Octavian v. Marc Antony Cleopatra?
7. Octavian defeats Marc Antony at Battle of Actium, 31 BC
Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus Rules empire as an Emperor Senate remains, but republic is lost
V. Rome in the Augustan Age The Pax Romana, 31 BC - 192 AD (CE)
A. Why did Imperial system work in replacing the Republic? 1. Augustus worked within construct of law 2. Emperors could choose successors Augustus, Tiberius: 23 BC - 37 AD five “good Emperors”: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius: 96-180 AD cooperated with the Senate; reformers
***System Augustus set up could survive “bad emperors” Caligula, Claudius, Nero
3. Reform the Senate 4. Build Equestrian class 5. Army reform
6. “Rounded off” the boundaries of the Empire Height of Empire, 116 A.D.
B. Culture of Imperial Rome 1. Augustus hoped to re-instill “republican virtues” 2. Reward soldiers with land 3. Assist urban poor of Rome with food, public works
C. “corruption” of republican virtue 1. In Imperial system, women obtain greater influence - marriage, court intrigue, cults, divorce, eulogies
2. “bad” emperors hated for extravagance Claudius gets a foot rub
3. The longer Rome was ruled by an Emperor, the less possible it was to return to republic - Marcus Aurelius Roman historians of the Imperial Era longed for the old republic, but strains of empire made that impossible