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The Idea That Was Rome I. The Origins of Rome. A. Relevance of Roman History to the Past and Present West 1. Greeks v. Romans: inclusiveness 2. Western.

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Presentation on theme: "The Idea That Was Rome I. The Origins of Rome. A. Relevance of Roman History to the Past and Present West 1. Greeks v. Romans: inclusiveness 2. Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Idea That Was Rome I. The Origins of Rome

2 A. Relevance of Roman History to the Past and Present West 1. Greeks v. Romans: inclusiveness 2. Western “template” language, government, law, religion 3. Republic or Empire?

3 B. Early Roman Civilization 1. Greek colonization

4 2. Carthage and Phoenician colonies

5 C. Etruscan Civilization 1. From Asia Minor, 2000s-1500 BCE a. De-centralized tribes b. Eastern gods, mythology

6 2. 800s BCE - confederation

7 3. Etruscan life a. sharp class division b. hydraulic, urban society c. high status of women

8 D. Latium (Latin) Civilization BCE - Alban League

9 2. Basic family unit - “paterfamilia” patricians, plebians 3. Senate 4. Mythology Cincinnatus, Horatio Cocles, Lucretia Romulus and Remus farmers, soldiers, and virtue

10 E. Etruscan Rome s = Etruscans conquer central Italy a. land-use technology b. military service/property ownership c. class stratification

11 2. Last Etruscan King - Tarquinio 3. Republic, unified Italy

12 II. The Roman Republic, ? BCE

13 Paradox of Republican Rome Values espoused not values maintained by ruling Senate

14 A. Republic and class compromise 1. Law of 12 Tables (450 BCE) 2. Conquest of Italian peninsula

15 B. The Punic Wars, BCE 1. Nearly defeated Rome

16 Livy, The Punic Wars Hannibal Barca

17 2. Long-term implications of Punic Wars would put great stress on republican Rome

18 III. Culture in Republican Rome

19 A. Empire of Farmers and Soldiers 1. Spokesman of republican virtue Cato the Elder

20 1. Women 2. Sons 3. Slaves

21 Fear of Slave Revolt 73 BC - Spartacus leads slave revolt; 70,000 Required 3 Roman armies to defeat him Led to “hysteria” among free Romans Crassus v. Pompey: origins of dictatorship

22 C. the Equestrian Class 1. Growing power through non-traditional means “new men” - officers, merchants, aristocrats of the empire

23 D. Senate instransigience 1. The Gracchus brothers (see Plutarch) 2. Public display

24 E. Religion 1. No specific caste of priests 2. Each family had its own gods, spirits - ancestor worship 3. Romans adopted other gods, ie the Greeks

25 4. State intolerant of non-sanctioned religions Cult of Isis, Bacchus

26 Persecution of the Cult of Bacchus was endemic of larger problems - growing class disparity; slavery - traditional male status in decline - no unifying public religion - Patricians hostile to any reform EAMUS CATULI!

27 IV. Fall of the Republic

28 A. Crisis of Government, ca. 100 BC 1. The Social Wars - Livius Drusus, expansion of citizenship 2. Losing grip on Empire

29 3. First Roman dictatorship, BC a. Sulla b. made army loyal to commander

30 B. Last-ditch effort to save the Republic 1. Cicero = “stoicism” 2. Restore republican virtues and accountability

31 C. Republic descends into Civil Wars, BC 1. Pompey, conquered Spain 2. Crassus, crushed Spartacan revolt 3. Julius Caesar, conquest of Gaul 59 BC, the First Triumvirate

32 4. Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, 49 BC

33 5. Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 BC 6. Renewed War: Octavian v. Marc Antony Cleopatra?

34 7. Octavian defeats Marc Antony at Battle of Actium, 31 BC

35 Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus Rules empire as an Emperor Senate remains, but republic is lost

36 V. Rome in the Augustan Age The Pax Romana, 31 BC AD (CE)

37 A. Why did Imperial system work in replacing the Republic? 1. Augustus worked within construct of law 2. Emperors could choose successors Augustus, Tiberius: 23 BC - 37 AD five “good Emperors”: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius: AD cooperated with the Senate; reformers

38 ***System Augustus set up could survive “bad emperors” Caligula, Claudius, Nero

39 3. Reform the Senate 4. Build Equestrian class 5. Army reform

40 6. “Rounded off” the boundaries of the Empire Height of Empire, 116 A.D.

41 B. Culture of Imperial Rome 1. Augustus hoped to re-instill “republican virtues” 2. Reward soldiers with land 3. Assist urban poor of Rome with food, public works

42 C. “corruption” of republican virtue 1. In Imperial system, women obtain greater influence - marriage, court intrigue, cults, divorce, eulogies

43 2. “bad” emperors hated for extravagance Claudius gets a foot rub

44 3. The longer Rome was ruled by an Emperor, the less possible it was to return to republic - Marcus Aurelius Roman historians of the Imperial Era longed for the old republic, but strains of empire made that impossible


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