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The belief that America should spread from coast to coast

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1 The belief that America should spread from coast to coast
Manifest Destiny The belief that America should spread from coast to coast

2 First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.
".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self-government entrusted to us... suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."

3 Political Pursuits Fear of Spanish, French, English, and Mexican power
Desire to spread Democracy and the American way of life. Desire to spread the institution of slavery

4 Economics (Why we do anything at all)
Belief that people could become more wealthy…that life could and would get better (Gold rush, natural resources.) Land speculators bought huge tracts of land and sold it for a profit (SF land $15 and $45,000)

5 Social Motivations Racism Escape from religious persecution (Mormons)
Belief that all people should own plot of land to keep the country free People wanted to find new ways of life, adventure

6 “American Progress” by John Gast 1872

7 Mountain Men- Fur Trapping
Very few whites moved to the west after Lewis and Clark exploration Still high demand for furs, especially beavers for hats Eastern part of U.S. had been trapped out Mountain Men went out west to trap in the Rocky Mountains

8 Mountain Men- Lure of the West
Major contributions: Trailblazing, finding new routes and mountain passes, mapping the West Made it easier for later pioneers Interactions, building relationships with Native Americans Brought business, economy to the West

9 Mountain Men- Lure of the West
Before long, the Mountain Men were not alone in the West Land Speculators- bought up huge amounts of land cheap and resold at a profit (SF) Manufacturers and Merchants People looking for a new start, adventure

10 From Sea to Shining Sea Louisiana Purchase 1803
Mexican Independence 1821 Indian Removal 1830 Texas Independence 1836 Oregon Territory 1840’s-1846 Texas Annexation 1845 Bear Flag Revolt 1845 War with Mexico results in CA, NV,NM 4 min

11 The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!
By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. James K. Polk elected President The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 49ºN.

12 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

13 Oregon “Fever” Why would people risk their lives to take a 2,000 mile trip across dangerous, unknown territory? In 1830s and 1840s exaggerated stories came back from early pioneers- Sun always shone Wheat grew as tall as a man Free or cheap land Many stories came from land speculators

14 Oregon “Fever” The journey west was made to look adventurous, exciting- reality?

15 Oregon Trail 2000 miles from Independence, Missouri to Oregon
Pioneers traveled in wagon trains for safety, organization Reality- danger, disease, exhaustion

16 Spanish Texas The Spanish had been in the Americas since Columbus in 1492. Spain owned a large part of North America, including Texas.

17 Tejanos In 1821, only about 4,000 Tejanos lived in Texas.
Tejanos are people of Spanish heritage who consider Texas their home. The Spanish government tried to attract Spanish setters to Texas, but very few came.

18 Moses Austin An American, Moses Austin was given permission by the Spanish government to start a colony in Texas. All the Americans had to do was follow Spanish laws. Moses died in 1821, so his son Stephen tried to start the colony.

19 In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain

20 Mexican Independence Changes Texas
The Mexican government told Stephen Austin his settlers would have to become Mexican citizens and members of the Roman Catholic Church, and learn Spanish. Between 1821 and 1827, Austin attracted 297 families to his new settlement.

21 Santa Fe Trail Missouri to New Mexico- 800 miles
New trading areas in the SW Spanish had kept Americans out, but now Mexico was independent and wanted trade Dangerous but profitable

22 The success of Austin’s colony attracted more land speculators and settlers to Texas from the United States. Some were looking for a new life, some were escaping from the law, and others were looking for a chance to grow rich. By 1830, the population had swelled to about 30,000,with Americans outnumbering the Tejanos six to one.

23 Rising Tensions in Texas
In 1829, the Mexican government outlawed slavery. The settlers wanted to keep their slaves so they could grow cotton. The Americans also didn’t want to learn Spanish or follow Mexican laws. Very few settlers had converted to Catholicism.

24 In 1829, the Mexican government closed the state to further American immigration.
Texans had to start paying taxes for the first time. Mexican president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent more Mexican troops to Texas. Texans began talk of breaking away from Mexico. When Stephen Austin was jailed, the Texans did revolt. Santa Anna led 6,000 troops to Texas to put down the revolt.

25 The Alamo The first battle between the Texans and Mexicans took place at on old mission that was used as a fort. It was called the Alamo.

26 The Fight for the Alamo There were only 183 Texans guarding the Alamo.
The Mexican army had 1,800 men. The Texans held the Alamo for twelve days. On the thirteenth day, Santa Anna ordered his men to storm the fortress. When it was over, all but five Texans were dead. The men not killed in the battle were executed by Santa Anna. Texans were shocked by the slaughter at the Alamo and vowed to fight for their freedom.



29 Battle at San Jacinto Santa Anna had over 300 more Texans executed at Golidad. Texan general, Sam Houston gathered more troops, 800 in all. It included Tejanos, American settlers, volunteers from the United States, and many free and enslaved African Americans. They met Santa Anna at San Jacinto.


31 Remember the Alamo Their battle cry was, “Remember the Alamo!”
It was over in 18 minutes. About half the Mexican army was killed. The rest were taken as POW’s. Santa Anna was captured the next day and was forced to sign a treaty giving Texas its freedom. Texas was now an independent country.

32 General Santa Anna surrenders to General Houston

33 Lone Star Republic In 1836, Texas declared itself The Lone Star Republic. Sam Houston was elected president. Some Americans wanted Texas to be part of the U.S. Some people were afraid of Texas becoming a slave state, others of war with Mexico.

34 The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt  June 14, 1845 John C. Frémont

35 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.
US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would California at any price. John Slidell

36 Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)

37 The Mexican War ( )

38 General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto
“Old Rough and Ready”

39 The Bombardment of Vera Cruz

40 General Scott Enters Mexico City
“Old Fuss and Feathers”

41 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator

42 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty was forced on Mexico! Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).

43 Results of the Mexican War?
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics. * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny partially realized.

44 Mormon Trail Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
Were persecuted for their beliefs Traveled West to Utah to find a place to practice their religion in peace 1847- about 1600 Mormons traveled from Illinois to Utah- across Iowa! Settled near Salt Lake City


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