Presentation on theme: "The belief that America should spread from coast to coast"— Presentation transcript:
1The belief that America should spread from coast to coast Manifest DestinyThe belief that America should spread from coast to coast
2First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self-government entrusted to us... suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."
3Political Pursuits Fear of Spanish, French, English, and Mexican power Desire to spread Democracy and the American way of life.Desire to spread the institution of slavery
4Economics (Why we do anything at all) Belief that people could become more wealthy…that life could and would get better(Gold rush, natural resources.)Land speculators bought huge tracts of land and sold it for a profit(SF land $15 and $45,000)
5Social Motivations Racism Escape from religious persecution (Mormons) Belief that all people should own plot of land to keep the country freePeople wanted to find new ways of life, adventure
7Mountain Men- Fur Trapping Very few whites moved to the west after Lewis and Clark explorationStill high demand for furs, especially beavers for hatsEastern part of U.S. had been trapped outMountain Men went out west to trap in the Rocky Mountains
8Mountain Men- Lure of the West Major contributions:Trailblazing, finding new routes and mountain passes, mapping the WestMade it easier for later pioneersInteractions, building relationships with Native AmericansBrought business, economy to the West
9Mountain Men- Lure of the West Before long, the Mountain Men were not alone in the WestLand Speculators- bought up huge amounts of land cheap and resold at a profit (SF)Manufacturers and MerchantsPeople looking for a new start, adventure
10From Sea to Shining Sea Louisiana Purchase 1803 Mexican Independence 1821Indian Removal 1830Texas Independence 1836Oregon Territory 1840’s-1846Texas Annexation 1845Bear Flag Revolt 1845War with Mexico results in CA, NV,NM4 min
11The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.James K. Polk elected PresidentThe joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 49ºN.
13Oregon “Fever”Why would people risk their lives to take a 2,000 mile trip across dangerous, unknown territory?In 1830s and 1840s exaggerated stories came back from early pioneers-Sun always shoneWheat grew as tall as a manFree or cheap landMany stories came from land speculators
14Oregon “Fever”The journey west was made to look adventurous, exciting- reality?
15Oregon Trail 2000 miles from Independence, Missouri to Oregon Pioneers traveled in wagon trains for safety, organizationReality- danger, disease, exhaustion
16Spanish TexasThe Spanish had been in the Americas since Columbus in 1492.Spain owned a large part of North America, including Texas.
17Tejanos In 1821, only about 4,000 Tejanos lived in Texas. Tejanos are people of Spanish heritage who consider Texas their home.The Spanish government tried to attract Spanish setters to Texas, but very few came.
18Moses AustinAn American, Moses Austin was given permission by the Spanish government to start a colony in Texas.All the Americans had to do was follow Spanish laws.Moses died in 1821, so his son Stephen tried to start the colony.
20Mexican Independence Changes Texas The Mexican government told Stephen Austin his settlers would have to become Mexican citizens and members of the Roman Catholic Church, and learn Spanish.Between 1821 and 1827, Austin attracted 297 families to his new settlement.
21Santa Fe Trail Missouri to New Mexico- 800 miles New trading areas in the SWSpanish had kept Americans out, but now Mexico was independent and wanted tradeDangerous but profitable
22The success of Austin’s colony attracted more land speculators and settlers to Texas from the United States. Some were looking for a new life, some were escaping from the law, and others were looking for a chance to grow rich.By 1830, the population had swelled to about 30,000,with Americans outnumbering the Tejanos six to one.
23Rising Tensions in Texas In 1829, the Mexican government outlawed slavery.The settlers wanted to keep their slaves so they could grow cotton.The Americans also didn’t want to learn Spanish or follow Mexican laws.Very few settlers had converted to Catholicism.
24In 1829, the Mexican government closed the state to further American immigration. Texans had to start paying taxes for the first time.Mexican president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent more Mexican troops to Texas.Texans began talk of breaking away from Mexico.When Stephen Austin was jailed, the Texans did revolt.Santa Anna led 6,000 troops to Texas to put down the revolt.
25The AlamoThe first battle between the Texans and Mexicans took place at on old mission that was used as a fort.It was called the Alamo.
26The Fight for the Alamo There were only 183 Texans guarding the Alamo. The Mexican army had 1,800 men.The Texans held the Alamo for twelve days.On the thirteenth day, Santa Anna ordered his men to storm the fortress.When it was over, all but five Texans were dead. The men not killed in the battle were executed by Santa Anna.Texans were shocked by the slaughter at the Alamo and vowed to fight for their freedom.
29Battle at San JacintoSanta Anna had over 300 more Texans executed at Golidad.Texan general, Sam Houston gathered more troops, 800 in all.It included Tejanos, American settlers, volunteers from the United States, and many free and enslaved African Americans.They met Santa Anna at San Jacinto.
31Remember the Alamo Their battle cry was, “Remember the Alamo!” It was over in 18 minutes. About half the Mexican army was killed. The rest were taken as POW’s.Santa Anna was captured the next day and was forced to sign a treaty giving Texas its freedom.Texas was now an independent country.
32General Santa Anna surrenders to General Houston
33Lone Star RepublicIn 1836, Texas declared itself The Lone Star Republic.Sam Houston was elected president.Some Americans wanted Texas to be part of the U.S.Some people were afraid of Texas becoming a slave state, others of war with Mexico.
34The Bear Flag RepublicThe Revolt June 14, 1845John C. Frémont
35Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt.US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.US would California at any price.John Slidell
36Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
40General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
41Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
42Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was forced on Mexico!Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).
43Results of the Mexican War? The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease).New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics.* Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South.Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.Manifest Destiny partially realized.
44Mormon Trail Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 Were persecuted for their beliefsTraveled West to Utah to find a place to practice their religion in peace1847- about 1600 Mormons traveled from Illinois to Utah- across Iowa!Settled near Salt Lake City