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Swiss politics and political institutions: 1. Society and History Prof. Dr. Andreas Ladner iMPA 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Swiss politics and political institutions: 1. Society and History Prof. Dr. Andreas Ladner iMPA 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swiss politics and political institutions: 1. Society and History Prof. Dr. Andreas Ladner iMPA 2013

2 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | For a very good introduction see  Linder/Iff (http://www.swissworld.org/media/political_syste m_2011/?lang=en)http://www.swissworld.org/media/political_syste m_2011/?lang=en  Very good!!!

3 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Module 1: 5 Blocks 1.Society and History 2.Federalism and Municipalities 3.Government and Parliament 4.Direct Democracy 5.Party system and Parties 6.What about the citizens?

4 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | What do people know about Switzerland?  Cheese, chocolate, watches and Nespresso?  Banks, insurances and pills?  Innovative policy solutions, political institutions and a special form of democracy?

5 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Political issues  What happens to the Swiss Franc?  Immigration and the Growth of the Swiss population – Free Movement of Persons Switzerland – EU/EFTA  Nuclear Power Plants  Banking secrecy – US, EU  ……

6 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The three pillars of the Swiss political system and the idea of power sharing Society Federalism Consensus Democracy Direct Democracy Politics

7 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Sources

8 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Block 1 1.Society 2.History

9 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Switzerland Population: 8 mio. Languages: German, French and Italian

10 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Switzerland

11 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Language 63.8 % 20.4 % 6.5 % 0.5 % 9.0 %

12 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Denominations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Switzerland

13 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Cross-cutting Cleavages French speaking, Catholics, poor German speaking, protestants, rich F G rich poor cath. prot.

14 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | 26 cantons and 2495 municipalities

15 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Population increase

16 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | “The biggest sorrows of the Swiss“ (Sorgenbarometer Credit Suisse 2010) Unemployment Old age pension scheme Health services Social security Foreigners Personal security EU/Bilaterales Asylum seekers New poverty...

17 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

18 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Non-swiss residents 1900 - 2007

19 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Refugees, Asylum seekers Integration of foreigners, free movement of persons EU, bilateral agreements

20 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Global Competitiveness

21 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

22 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | GDP (PPP) per capita The gross domestic product at purchasing power parity of countries per capita, shows the value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.gross domestic productpurchasing power parityper capita GDP dollar estimates are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country tend to differ, sometimes substantially. PPP figures are estimates rather than hard facts, and should be used with caution.purchasing power parityInternational Monetary FundWorld Bank http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_%28PPP%29_per_capita

23 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

24 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Reasons for the succes?  Neutrality, not involved in WW I and WW II  Banking secrecy  Not member of the EU  Small country, no Kings and Queens, no colonies  International orientation, innovative, niche oriented  Liberal country

25 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Reasons for the success Weltwoche Nr. 36.13 Robert U. Vogler: «Mythos arme Schweiz»

26 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

27 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The Swiss state Liberal state, minimal state or welfare state?

28 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | http://www.efv.admin.ch/f/dokumentation/downloads/themen/oeff_haushalte/intv_staatsquote.pdf (Ratio of government expenditures to gross national product)

29 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Ratio of government expenditures to gross national product (Economiesuisse)

30 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Economiesuisse: Finances publiques consolidées selon caractère obligatoire (dépenses)

31 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Expenditures (State levels and Social Insurances, 2009, percentages) Transfers included; total: 229 billions Swiss francs

32 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

33 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

34 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Civil servants compared

35 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Civil servants on the different state levels Ballendowitsch, Jens (2003). Sozialstruktur, soziale Sicherung und soziale Lage des öffentlichen Dienstes der Schweiz. Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung. Working papers Nr. 68.

36 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Central government expenses 2009 (58 billion) http://www.efv.admin.ch/f/dokumentation/zahlen_fakten/finanzberichterstattung.php Transport Finances and tax Social Security Others International Affairs Agriculture and Food Education and Research Defense

37 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Expenses central government (Confederation) 1960 (2.7 billions) Transport Finances and tax Social Security Others International AffairsAgriculture and Food Education and Research Defense Health Culture

38 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Income central government (Confederation) http://www.efv.admin.ch/f/downloads/finanzberichterstattung/bufi/R_Bufi_2009_f.pd f Federal Direct Tax on income and wealth Value Added Tax

39 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Content 1.Switzerland 2.History

40 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | http://www.swissworld.org/en/history/

41 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

42 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The Old Swiss Confederacy (1291-1515)  Important trade route over the Gotthard  Interest and influence of Habsburg -> „Oath on Rütli“ to mutual help against anyone attempting to subject them  German king Friedrich II exempted the valleys of Uri (1231) and Schwyz (1240) from the jurisdiction of any counts and dukes so they would be subject to the king alone

43 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

44 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The ancient political system in Switzerland Source: http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/swiss-revolution-helvetic-republic-1798.html

45 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

46 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

47 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Catholics 1850 und 1990 (percentages)

48 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

49 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Revolts against the Ancien Regime From 1650 to 1790, the various revolts against the rich families in the cities did not have any success:  The war of the peasants of the Emmental (subject territory of Berne) and Entlebuch (subject territory of Lucerne) against these cities in 1653  The revolt of Wilchingen against Schaffhausen (1717 - 1729)  The revolt of Werdenberg against Glarus (1719 - 1722)  The revolt of major Abraham Davel in Lausanne (Vaud) against Berne (1723)  The revolt of the peasants of Jura against the prince-bishop of Basel (1726 - 1739)  The revolt of the Leventina (Ticino) against Uri (1755)  The revolt of Chenaux (Fribourg) against Fribourg (1781)

50 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | French Revolution (1789) The Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789

51 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 |

52 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The Helvetic Republic (1798-1803) On 5 March 1798, French troops completely overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed. On 12 April 1798 121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic, "One and Indivisible". The new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights. The occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution.

53 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | 1803: „Act of Mediation“ = Restoration of the old Confederation of the 13 Cantons + 6 new Cantons (SG, GR, AG, TG, VD, TI) 1814: Genève, le Valais et Neuchâtel join the Confederation 1815: Congress of Vienna -> Swiss neutrality

54 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The foundation of the modern national state (1848)  Tensions between the liberal Protestant and the Catholic cantons lead to the civil war in 1847 (the “Sonderbundskrieg”).  After a brief military campaign with federal troops, the Catholics, who had founded a separatist federation, surrender.  1848 The modern Swiss federal state is founded in 1848. Its constitution centralises and harmonises numerous areas which were previously the responsibility of the cantons, such as military service, customs, and postal services and coinage.  This leads to the creation of a cohesive territory ripe for economic development.

55 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Nation Building after a short Civil War (1847) The Radical Party and liberals made up of urban bourgeoisie and burghers, which were strong in the largely Protestant cantons proposed a new Constitution for the Swiss Confederation which would draw the cantons into a closer relationship and develop into a modern capitalist nation with banking and trade (Engels). The conservative city patricians and mountain or Ur-Swiss from the largely Catholic cantons were opposed to the new constitution.

56 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | 1848: 70 per cent of the Cantons accept the new Constitution

57 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | The first Swiss government

58 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Federation ≠ Confederation The “Swiss Confederation” is not a Confederation! -> Compare to the European Union!

59 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Since then  More and more tasks are allocated to the state sector (infrastructure, social security, risk, sustainability)  The central state becomes more important. The execution in many domains, however, remains in the hands of the lower units -> increasing entanglement („Poliltikverflechtung“)

60 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | A paradigmatic case of political integration  Small state  No royalist past  Strategically important location in Europe  Bottom-up nation building  Core principles of the political system: power sharing!

61 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas.Ladner@idheap.unil.ch | | 08/05/2015 | Study work  How would you describe your country compared to Switzerland?  How do people in our country spend their money?


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