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U.S. Imperialism 1888-1908 1888-1908. Causes of US Imperialism: American sentiment changed from an attitude of isolation & disinterest in world affairs.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Imperialism 1888-1908 1888-1908. Causes of US Imperialism: American sentiment changed from an attitude of isolation & disinterest in world affairs."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Imperialism 1888-1908 1888-1908


3 Causes of US Imperialism: American sentiment changed from an attitude of isolation & disinterest in world affairs

4 Turner's thesis: –End of frontier implies a need for expansion Rise of nationalism & global industrialism –Imperial competition with Europe (Germany)

5 Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908 American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914

6 Missionaries –Spread feeling of religious zeal & ethnic/cultural superiority Yellow Journalism –Desire for circulation led to increased Jingoism & sensationalism

7 Imperialist Philosophies: Reverend Josiah Strong –Our Country (1885) –Anglo-Saxon supremacy

8 Alfred Thayer Mahan –Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783 (1890) –Control of the sea was the key to world dominance & empire

9 Henry Cabot Lodge, John Hay, & Teddy Roosevelt –Believed in expansion & involvement in order to survive competition with modern states –Social Darwinists

10 Rudyard Kipling's "White Man's Burden“ –Explained the reasons for Imperialism Manifest Destiny –America's destiny to expand into the Pacific

11 The White Man’s Burden

12 Monroe Doctrine –Europe should not be involved in Western Hemisphere's affairs –US must be the “Policeman” of the Hemisphere

13 Olney's "US is Sovereign" Roosevelt Corollary

14 Foreign Crises & Involvements

15 Cleveland Administration (Part 1) US & Great Britain struggle over fishing rights in Canada

16 Chamberlain Treaty (1888) –Sets guidelines & reciprocal tariffs –Not ratified by Senate

17 Harrison Administration 1889: Samoan Crisis –US & Germany come close to war over control of Samoa –Great Britain sends ships

18 –Hurricane destroys US, German, & British fleets except one British ship –Arbitration returns King to power, war averted –Tripartite committee oversees Samoa

19 1889: Pan-American Conference –Sec of State Blaine calls first International Conference of American States –Little, if anything, accomplished

20 1891: Valparaiso Incident –2 US sailors from the Baltimore are killed by a mob in Chile –US gets settlement of $75,000 & war averted

21 11 Italians lynched in New Orleans –settlement ends conflict & war averted

22 1892: Bering Sea –US & Great Britain come to agreement over seal hunting in Bering Sea –Pribilof Island off limits to sealing

23 Cleveland Administration (Part 2) 1893: Hawaii –Sanford Dole (Planter) & John L. Stevens (US Ambassador) led revolt against Queen Liliuokalani Sanford Dole

24 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

25 –US Marines used –Stevens declares Hawaii US protectorate –Submits treaty of annexation to US Senate –Treaty withdrawn by Cleveland

26 –Cleveland studies wrong doings –Hawaii remains independent

27 1895: Venezuela –Boundary disputed between Venezuela & British Guiana –Cleveland offered US arbitration of dispute –Britain refuses - Crown there first

28 –Sec of State Richard Olney declares: "US is practically sovereign in the invulnerable against all other powers“ –Despite British naval superiority, Britain backs down

29 –Rivalry with Germany & Boer War of more concern –British did not want conflict with potential US ally –Strengthened: Monroe Doctrine US-British relations

30 1896: Cuba –Cleveland seeks to arbitrate Cuban Revolt –Spain refuses –US on the road to war with Spain

31 Spanish- American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”

32 Causes: Nationalism Monroe Doctrine Support for underdogs High tariffs in US hurt sugar growers in Cuba Unemployment & hunger

33 1895: Cubans revolt against Spanish rulers –Supported by US planters –Many interested in annexation to avoid tariffs Events Leading to War

34 Insurrectos began burning plantations in "scorched earth" program of guerilla war

35 General Valeriano Weyler –Sent by Spain to quell revolt –Uses reconcentrado camps to end support for rebels hundreds die –Weyler called "Butcher" by yellow press

36 Reconcentration

37 1896: Not wanting war, Cleveland seeks arbitration between Spain & Cubans –Spain refuses –Yellow journalists call for Cleveland to get tough Pulitzer


39 McKinley becomes President 1897: Revolt continues –Congress appropriates $50,000 to aid US citizens in Cuba

40 William Randolph Hearst sends famed western artist Frederick Remington to document atrocities William Randolph Hearst

41 –Remington reports, “All quiet here... there will be no war.“ –Hearst answers, "You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war." Hearst Pulitzer

42 Dingley Tariffs raise sugar tariffs to 97%

43 "Butcher" Weyler recalled by new Spanish Premier who offers to give limited self-rule to Cuba US "Jingoists" want war not concessions

44 Feb. 9, 1898: de Lôme Letter –Senõr Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Minister to US, has letter stolen from Cuban mail –Published by Hearst de Lôme

45 –Letter called McKinley "weak & a bidder for the admiration of the crowd... keeps on good terms with jingoes in his party."

46 Teddy Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, Hearst, & Pulitzer called for war McKinley has the backbone of a chocolate éclair! TR

47 USS Maine

48 Feb. 15, 1898: USS Maine –Battleship mysteriously blows up in Havana harbor –258 sailors dead

49 –US says explosion is external –Spain says it was internal –Investigation was never clear –Public cries…

50 "Remember the Maine & to hell with Spain!"


52 Feb. 25, 1898: Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt sends confidential message to Commodore Dewey –Orders the US Pacific fleet to Hong Kong to be ready to invade Philippines in case of war

53 March 27, 1898: McKinley & Hanna wanting to avoid war (bad for business) seek diplomatic solution

54 April 9, 1898: Spain agrees to armistice & negotiation with rebels –McKinley wins diplomatic victory –Roosevelt says McKinley "has no more backbone than a chocolate eclair"

55 April 11, 1898: McKinley bows to political pressure & delivers war message to Congress - war begins

56 Events & Conflicts of the War Events & Conflicts of the War

57 April 19, 1898: Congress passes War Resolution –War is official –Adds Teller Amendment stating US has no intention of annexing Cuba (sugar lobby) –125,000 volunteers called up

58 April 26, 1898: John Sherman resigns as Secretary of State –John Hay replaces him

59 May 1, 1898: Manila Bay –Commodore Dewey attacks Admiral Montojo –Spanish fleet destroyed –381 dead –No US damage, 8 wounded

60 SP War in Pacific

61 "You may fire when ready, Gridley."


63 May 19, 1898: Emilio Aguinaldo aided by US to return to Philippines to aid in fighting Spanish ground troops

64 Emilio Aguinaldo

65 Meanwhile, back in Cuba… Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet enters Santiago Harbor

66 May 29, 1898: US Commodore Winfield Scott blockades Santiago harbor June 10, 1898: US Marines land at Guantanamo Bay

67 June 14, 1898: In a major fiasco 17,000 US troops leave Tampa Bay, Florida –Roosevelt's "Rough Riders" aboard

68 SP War in Caribbean

69 “We weren't prepared to return your 12-gun salute when you entered the harbor." June 20, 1898: US Pacific forces capture Guam –Spanish forces without ammunition & did not know there was a war

70 July 1, 1898: Battles of El Caney & San Juan Hill –US wins bloody battles in another fiasco –TR leads charge –1572 US casualties in 8 hours


72 San Juan Hill, 1898

73 Colonel Theodore Roosevelt & the Rough Riders atop San Juan Hill, 1898

74 July 3, 1898: Spanish fleet ordered out of Santiago Harbor –Outgunned & outdated –Destroyed by US fleet

75 474 Spanish casualties474 Spanish casualties 1 US dead1 US dead Santiago Harbor

76 Aftermath of Santiago Harbor

77 July 4, 1898: US raises flag over unoccupied Wake Island July 7, 1898: US officially annexes Hawaii –Strategic importance is obvious

78 Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

79 July 17, 1898: Santiago surrenders 24,000 Spanish prisoners –US combat dead = 260

80 July 25, 1898: US forces occupy Puerto Rico July 26, 1898: Spain sues for peace –Armistice begins –Treaty of Paris, 1898 ratified –John Hay's ”Splendid Little War" ends

81 Outcome & Consequences of War

82 PROS Enhances national prestige Prevents foreign annexation Creates economic advantage Strategic & civilizing advantage


84 CONS Non-whites won't assimilate Against Monroe Doctrine Weakens belief in self- rule No support for under- dog

85 Question remains: “Does the constitution follow the flag?

86 Foraker Act –Makes Puerto Rico a virtual colony –US had no colonial office –1916: Jones Act grants citizenship (full territory status)

87 Insular cases (1901) –Series of court cases that establishes a duality of territorial status –Territories such as Alaska & Hawaii had higher status that Guam or Puerto Rico –Constitution does not follow the flag

88 Cuba –1902: US gives Cuba independence –Platt Amendment Forced into Cuban constitution Gives US right to interfere to maintain order US keeps Guantanamo Bay

89 Guantanamo Bay

90 Philippines –McKinley, under pressure by missionaries & business interests (& after "divine intervention") decides to keep all of the Philippines

91 William H. Taft – 1 st Governor-General of the Philippines

92 Founded in 1899 Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism American Anti-Imperialist League

93 –Revolution in Philippines led by Aguinaldo (1899) US forces use torture to fight guerilla war Revolt continues until Aguinaldo captured in 1901 Policy of education & public works aids “little brown brothers”

94 US becomes a world power

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