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UNIFICATION OF ITALY. After the American Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, countries sought to unite for national independence. This was known as “Nationalism”

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Presentation on theme: "UNIFICATION OF ITALY. After the American Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, countries sought to unite for national independence. This was known as “Nationalism”"— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIFICATION OF ITALY

2 After the American Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, countries sought to unite for national independence. This was known as “Nationalism”

3 At the Congress of Vienna, the map of Europe was redrawn and Italy sought a united Italian state. Prince Metternich found the idea “laughable” and divided the territory that became Italy amongst other European powers.

4 In 1815 Modern Day Italy did not exist. -Separated into a number of independent states mostly controlled by different powers, even though they all spoke the same language -France (Kingdom of 2 Sicilies) -Austria (Lombardy and Venetia) -The Pope (Papal States)

5 By the 1860s Italy becomes one nation WHAT PREVENTED THIS PREVIOUSLY? 1)Political Division 2)Cultural Division dialects 3)Economic Issues Trade barriers Poor transportation

6 The road to Italian Unification began in 1831

7 Risorgimento (ree-zawr-jee-mehn-toh) -means resurgence or revival -an Italian Nationalist movement

8 Giusseppe Mazzini -From Genoa -Founded “Young Italy”- a secret society seeking to make Italy “one, free independent nation” -felt that having a NATION STATE (a political organization consisting of one nationality rather than several) was important -In January of 1848 inspires a revolt in Sicily, leading to revolts in other parts of Italy

9 Pope Pius IX -Elected Pope in 1846 -Longest reigning pope in history -Pardoned all revolutionaries upon his election (leading to more revolts) -Refused to go to war with Austria to unify Italy because they were another Catholic nation -Not liked by many because of his liberal views -Essentially overthrown leading to a Roman republic in 1849

10 -Mazzini heads new Roman Republic Expulsion of Pope angers other Catholic nations (Spain, Naples and France) -Louis Napoleon of France sends troops to restore Pope’s power and did, but occupied the Papal States until 1870 and blocked the unification movement

11 -As a result of French occupation of the Papal States, people lose faith in Mazzini as a leader -Turn to Charles Albert of Sardinia (pictured left) -Led a revolt against Austria in northern Italy, but was defeated (granting them control of Lombardy and Venetia) -He earned the respect of the people through this revolt -Italians now looked to Sardinia to head the movement for Italian unification -Died in 1849 leaving Victor Emmanuel II (his son) in charge

12 -Victor Emmanuel II kept alive the ideals of Nationalism -More importantly, he named Count Camillo di Cavour (left) Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852 -Cavour was known to be “funny looking” with rumpled clothes but possessed great personal charm -Was bold and intelligent and left Victor Emmanuel an empire 5x greater than he inherited it -Goals as Prime Minister were to: 1)Promote industrialization 2)Reduce the Catholic Church’s influence 3)Advance Nationalism (though not necessarily for all of Italy)

13 Involvement in the Crimean War -Sardinia joined on side of British and French (who wanted them to join to get Austria to join in) -This was a shrewd political move more than anything -joined too late to be a military presence (1855 when the war started in 1853) -gained them an invite to the Congress of Paris (where treaty settling Crimean War is signed)

14 WAR WITH AUSTRIA -In the summer of 1858 Napoleon III and Cavour agree that France will aid Sardinia in case of war -In return, Sardinia would give Savoy and Nice to France if the combined forces were to win -Cavour essentially forces Austria to go to war with Sardinia by: Getting Lombardy to revolt Having Sardinia support the rebels Refusing to remove support when Austria demands Sardinia does so In April of 1859 Austria declares war on Sardinia

15 Never trust the French!!! -The combined French-Sardinian forces defeat Austria in Lombardy -France suffers heavy casualties -In July of 1859 Napoleon signs a treaty with Austria without consulting Cavour -Sardinia gains Lombardy, but Austria retained Venetia -Without French support, Sardinia cannot fight Austria alone and Victor Emmanuel agrees to treaty despite Cavour’s wishes to continue the war -Tuscany, Parma, Modeva, and the Papal province of Romagna overthrew their rulers in 1859 and 1860 and joined Sardinia -Politicking, Cavour gives Savoy and Nice to France anyhow

16 Garibaldi Seizes the South -Southern Italy remained isolated from Revolutions until death of Ferdinand II (ruler of Kingdom of Two Sicilies - Italian nationalists prepare for revolution - Their leader? Giuseppe Garibaldi (left) - Was a member of the Young Italy - Was forced into exile in 1830 for his part in the uprisings (went to South America)

17 Garibaldi (con’t) -While in S. America fought in several revolutions (gains experience) - Became an expert in Guerrilla fighting (hit and run) - Returns to Italy in 1848 and is active in Mazzini’s Roman republic - Fled to USA when republic falls - Returns to Kingdom of Two Sicilies in 1860

18 Garibaldi (con’t) -Gained control over the island in a few weeks, then advanced toward Naples - He and his “Red Shirts” fought the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and won due to the guerrilla tactics - Cavour became nervous and sends army to the Papal States (wins) - Southern Italy supports union with Sardinia (Oct 1860) and Garibaldi surrenders his conquest to Victor Emmanuel II

19 -With Kingdom of Two Sicilies and Sardinia united, all of Italy is unified except for Rome (Papal State) and Venetia (Austria) - A Constitutional monarchy of Italy is formed - Count Cavour dies only three months after seeing his dream of a unified Italy come true

20 Problems facing the newly unified Italy 1)Economic 2)Cultural (South: Poor and Agricultural; North: Industrial) 3)Sardinia tries to force its laws and customs on others (leading to resentment from the others) 4)Capital- should be Rome, but Pope still ruled the city

21 Gradually….. 1)Italy forms a unified army 2)Roads are built to connect the north and south of Italy 3) In 1866 Italy allies with Prussia against Austria - Italians are promised Venetia -Prussia defeats Austria and Italy gets Venetia 4) War between France and Prussia (Franco-Prussian) leads France to pull troops out of Rome in 1870—Italians attack Pope and seize Rome 5) In 1871 Capital moved from Florence to Rome—completes unification of Italy


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