Southern Slavery: Worse Than the Rest 1780s: 1 st antislavery society created in Philadelphia 1808: The legal termination of the slave trade 1820s: Newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. 1833: Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. 1844: Slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. 1861: The serfs of Russia were emancipated.
Why Not Leave? High cost of keeping slaves from escaping. GOAL raise the “exit cost.” Slave patrols. Southern Black Codes. Cut off a toe or a foot.
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.
Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200, ,000 Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%] Roughly 30 to 50% of White Southern Population were landless (329) Majority of slave holders were yeoman trying to move up in the world
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin Invented in 1793 The invention of the cotton gin caused massive growth in the production of cotton in the United States. Cotton production expanded from 750,000 bales in 1830 to 2.85 million bales in As a result, the South became even more dependent on plantations and slavery, with plantation agriculture becoming the largest sector of the Southern economy. The number of slaves rose in concert with the increase in cotton production, increasing from around 700,000 in 1790 to around 3.2 million in By 1860, the southern states were providing two-thirds of the world’s supply of cotton, and up to eighty percent of the crucial British market.
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
Changes in Cotton Production
Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports
Distribution of Slave Labor in 1850
The Ledger of John White Matilda Selby, 9, $ sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $ Brooks Selby, 19, $ Left at Home – Crazy Fred McAfee, 22, $ Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $ Howard Barnett, 25, $ Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $ Harriett Barnett, 17, $ Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00
Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA
Slave owning elites (Those that owned 50 slaves or more) 2.5% of population More spread out- more self reliant (Attitude still exist) Planter elite- through school experiences, family networks, politics, etc. formed a system they felt was based on English aristocracy The man had the power and would fight for “honor” Slave overseer was the ones most often to discipline slaves
Paternalistic Ideology (333) The planter elite developed a paternalistic ideology to justify their rigorous insistence on the master-slave relationship. According to this idea, each plantation was a family composed of both black and white. The master, as head of the plantation, was the head of the family, and the mistress (wife) was the “helpmate.” The master was expected to provide for his family, including both whites and blacks. In return, the slaves would work properly and do as they were told
Plantation Mistress Held a large amount of responsibility without much in the way of authority Mistress ran the household staff Mistresses were responsible for arrangement of visitors and entertaining Husbands were usually the real authority on the plantation (Page 333)
Slave Resistance 1.“SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites- the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.
Slave Resistance 2.Refusal to work hard. 3.Isolated acts of sabotage. 4.Escape via the Underground Railroad- system of hidden passages, routes, and safe houses.
HARRIETT TUBMAN Greatest conductor on “Underground Railroad”: Known as “Grandma Moses” She earned freedom and would sneak about to the South and led about 300 slaves to safety- $40,000 reward was on her head
Runaway Slave Ads
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas
Famous Slave Rebellions- Gabriel’s Rebellion large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800 Gabriel Prosser- Was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned to lead a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of However, information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, thus Gabriel's plans were foiled. Gabriel and twenty-five other members of the revolt were hanged. In reaction, the Virginia and other legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as the education, movement and hiring out of the enslaved.
Denmark Vesey: 1822 he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States Charleston, South Carolina executed Denmark Vesey House at Charleston was named a National Historic Landmark in 1976 Was an African American slave brought to the United States from the Caribbean. After purchasing his freedom, he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States. Word of the plans was leaked, and at Charleston, South Carolina, authorities arrested the plot's leaders before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were tried, convicted and executed. Although it was almost certainly not his home, the Denmark Vesey House at Charleston was named a National Historic Landmark in antislavery activists regard Vesey as a hero Frederick Douglass used Vesey's name as a battle cry Many antislavery activists came to regard Vesey as a hero. During the American Civil War, abolitionist Frederick Douglass used Vesey's name as a battle cry to rally African-American regiments, especially the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
Nat Turner, 1831 Uprising of slaves in Southampton County, VA in the summer of 1831 which led to the death of 55 white people- deadliest slave revolt in U.S. history: Helped to lead to more violence in the system of slavery -Nat Turner was a preacher who had a vision to revolt: Started with Five rebels -Treated “humanely” by owner, despite previous attempt to run away but killed his master 1 st saying- “was to me a kind master…I had no cause to complain of his treatment of me.” -Moved from plantation to plantation, eventually getting up to 60 - As armed white men came after them, they fled. Eventually, 40 or so were executed fro revolt including Nat Turner (although he avoided capture for 2 mos.)
John Brown Raid- His strategy was to steal guns and weapons from Harper’s Ferry and armed VA slaves Essentially he wanted to deplete Virginia of its slaves, causing the institution to collapse in one county after another, until the movement spread into the South, essentially wreaking havoc on the economic viability of the pro-slavery states. Thus, while violence was essential to self-defense and advancement of the movement, Brown's hope was to limit and minimize bloodshed, not ignite a slave insurrection as many have charged. From the Southern point of view, of course, any effort to arm the enslaved was perceived as a definitive threat Caught and executed- Became an abolitionist martyr
Other Rebellions 1739 Stono Rebellion: (South Carolina, Suppressed) 1741 New York Conspiracy: (New York City, Suppressed) 1791–1804 Haitian Revolution: (Saint-Domingue, Victorious) 1800 Gabriel Prosser: (Virginia, Suppressed) 1805 Chatham Manor: (Virginia, Suppressed) 1811 German Coast Uprising: (Territory of Orleans, Suppressed) 1822 Denmark Vesey: (South Carolina, Suppressed) 1831 Nat Turner's rebellion: (Virginia, Suppressed) 1831–1832 Baptist War: (Jamaica, Suppressed) 1839 Amistad, ship rebellion: (Off the Cuban coast, Victorious- Captured by USS Washington- Supreme Court ruled them free) 1841 Creole, ship rebellion: (Off the Southern U.S. coast, Victorious) 1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation: (Southern U.S., Suppressed) 1859 John Brown's Raid: (Virginia, Suppressed)
The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: 2 nd Great Awakening * More emotional worship services. * Negro spirituals- Offered support to live in what they did 2. “Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3. Nuclear family with extended kin links where possible: Used terms of family members that were not family 4. Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].
Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda
Famous Abolitionists Those that worked for the ending of slavery
JOHN BROWN massacre- five pro-slavery at Pottawatomie Massacre Helped massacre- five pro-slavery at Pottawatomie Massacre (Bleeding Kansas) Attempted to take weapons from Harpers’ Ferry Arsenal- Slave Revolt
Harriet Beecher Stowe “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
LEVI COFFIN Operated Underground Railroad station in Indiana- Fountain City (Newport) Helped 2,000 slaves escape Was model for “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” "Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad". He was nicknamed "President of the Underground Railroad" because of the thousands of slaves that are reported to have passed through his care while escaping their masters. Coffin was deeply involved in the Underground Railroad in Indiana and Ohio and his home is often called "Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad". He was nicknamed "President of the Underground Railroad" because of the thousands of slaves that are reported to have passed through his care while escaping their masters. Coffin's home became the convergence point of three major escape routes from Madison, New Albany, and Cincinnati.
William Lloyd Garrison Was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Sojourner Truth Isabella Baumfree Self- given name: Real name was Isabella Baumfree or Isabella Von Wagener Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in After going to court to recover her son, she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man. Ain't I a Woman?, Her best-known extemporaneous speech on racial inequalities, Ain't I a Woman?, was delivered in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. During the Civil War, Truth helped recruit black troops for the Union Army; after the war, Truth tried unsuccessfully to secure land grants from the federal government for former slaves.
Fredrick Douglas Was born a slave Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas- An American Slave One of the most influential African- Americans- Advised A. Lincoln and gave a famous tribute to him 2 sons served in the 54 th Massachusetts- An all black regiment