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Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America 1730-1763.

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Presentation on theme: "Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America 1730-1763."— Presentation transcript:

1 Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America 1730-1763

2 The Great Awakening, 1730s-1760s Major Themes Evangelicals – “bearers of good news” – Undermined religious authority, order Pluralism, egalitarianism – Conversion experience – Enslaved Africans, Indians – Individualism – free-will

3 Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason – Geocentric vs. helio- centric – Descartes (Calculus) – John Locke Empiricism Rational universe Religious Matters – Spectral evidence debunked – Rationale Protestantism

4 Rationalists vs. Evangelicals “An unchurched people” – displacement Revival of Supernatural Constant revelation – Quakers without pacifism Reason rebuked – Man may not know God through reason, but only through emotional rebirth – Conversion experience

5 Jonathan Edwards Scion of New England elite – Solomon Stoddard “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” – Fire & brimstone – Male % increase A Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Works of God (1737-8)

6 George Whitefield English evangelical – Anti-rationalism (Church of England) Itinerant Preacher – England, Whales 1739-41 (American tour) – Maine to Georgia – celebrity

7 George Whitefield in America, 1739-41 Benjamin Franklin – Printing business Franklin’s rationalism “He finished so admirably, that I emptied my Pocket wholly into the Collection’s Dish, Gold and all.” 1739-45 (80K copies) – 1:11 ratio

8 Emergence of Radicals Anti-educated clergy “calling” Democratic – Removal of class distinction – Plebian vs. patrician Non-ordained ministry Exhorters – Female preachers

9 Samson Occom, 1723-92 Mohegan convert Published 1749-60: preached to Indian converts – Poverty wages 1766: raised £11K in England – Educating Indians – Dartmouth – Natives excluded

10 Legacies of Great Awakening Pluralism Evangelicalism – “many ways to God” Separation of church and state – taxes – Church will corrupt state, not state corrupt church (R. Williams) Democracy? Toleration?

11 The Imperial Crisis: France & England 1689-1763 – Nine Years War (1689- 97) – War of Spanish Succession (1702-13) – Seven Years War (1756- 63); French-Indian War (1754-63) Population (N. America) – 1750: NF=1/10 British

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13 Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie – Oust French from Ohio Valley – Contested terrain George Washington – Fort Duquesne – blunders July 4, 1754 – Fort Necessity

14 British escalate colonial war Edward Braddock – 2,200 British regular & colonial troops – Fort Duquesne Disaster – European style – Dysentery, swamp fever – 1 mile per day – Deaths-40 (F) :1,000 (B)

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16 British commitments William Pitt Colonial policy – Invest troops, money – Escalate debt – “America first” 1758 – 45,000 British – 9,000 French Fort Duquesne falls Fort Pitt

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19 Cost of War Conquest of Canada – £4 million – 10X French defense Treaty of Paris (1763) – French concessions – Mississippi River – West (Spain) – East (England) – Florida (England)

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21 The Empire in Transition The New Imperialism The New Imperialism –The British and the Tribes  Failure of the Proclamation of 1763 21.

22 The Empire in Transition The New Imperialism The New Imperialism –Battles over Trade and Taxes  Sugar & Stamp Acts (1764-65)  Sugar Act: reduced tariff on foreign molasses: six pence to three pence  Stamp Act: most printed materials; act repealed  “in all cases whatsoever”  Persistent Colonial Grievances 22

23 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of Revolt Stirrings of Revolt –The Stamp Act Crisis  Effects of the Stamp Act  “Virginia Resolves”  Taxation & rep. govt.  Stamp Act Repealed The Tory’s Day of Judgment (Library of Congress) 23

24 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of Revolt Stirrings of Revolt –The Townshend Program  Mutiny Act  Townshend Duties  Nonimportation Agreement 24.

25 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of Revolt Stirrings of Revolt –The Boston Massacre  Rebellious Boston  “Committee of Correspondence” The Boston Massacre (Library of Congress) 25

26 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of Revolt Stirrings of Revolt –The Philosophy of Revolt  Sources of Revolutionary Ideology  “No Taxation without Representation”  “Virtual” and “Actual” Representation  Sovereignty Debated 26

27 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of Revolt Stirrings of Revolt –Sites of Resistance  Political Importance of Colonial Taverns –The Tea Excitement  The Tea Act  The Boston “Tea Party”  Consequences of the Coercive Acts 27.

28 The Empire in Transition Cooperation and War Cooperation and War –New Sources of Authority  The First Continental Congress 28


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