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Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America

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Presentation on theme: "Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America"— Presentation transcript:

1 Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America

2 The Great Awakening, 1730s-1760s
Major Themes Evangelicals “bearers of good news” Undermined religious authority, order Pluralism, egalitarianism Conversion experience Enslaved Africans, Indians Individualism free-will

3 Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason Religious Matters
Geocentric vs. helio-centric Descartes (Calculus) John Locke Empiricism Rational universe Religious Matters Spectral evidence debunked Rationale Protestantism

4 Rationalists vs. Evangelicals
“An unchurched people” displacement Revival of Supernatural Constant revelation Quakers without pacifism Reason rebuked Man may not know God through reason, but only through emotional rebirth Conversion experience

5 Jonathan Edwards Scion of New England elite
Solomon Stoddard “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” Fire & brimstone Male % increase A Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Works of God (1737-8)

6 George Whitefield English evangelical Itinerant Preacher
Anti-rationalism (Church of England) Itinerant Preacher England, Whales (American tour) Maine to Georgia celebrity

7 George Whitefield in America, 1739-41
Benjamin Franklin Printing business Franklin’s rationalism “He finished so admirably, that I emptied my Pocket wholly into the Collection’s Dish, Gold and all.” (80K copies) 1:11 ratio

8 Emergence of Radicals Anti-educated clergy “calling” Democratic
Removal of class distinction Plebian vs. patrician Non-ordained ministry Exhorters Female preachers

9 Samson Occom, 1723-92 Mohegan convert Published
: preached to Indian converts Poverty wages 1766: raised £11K in England Educating Indians Dartmouth Natives excluded

10 Legacies of Great Awakening
Pluralism Evangelicalism “many ways to God” Separation of church and state taxes Church will corrupt state, not state corrupt church (R. Williams) Democracy? Toleration?

11 The Imperial Crisis: France & England
Nine Years War ( ) War of Spanish Succession ( ) Seven Years War ( ); French-Indian War ( ) Population (N. America) 1750: NF=1/10 British


13 Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie George Washington July 4, 1754
Oust French from Ohio Valley Contested terrain George Washington Fort Duquesne blunders July 4, 1754 Fort Necessity

14 British escalate colonial war
Edward Braddock 2,200 British regular & colonial troops Fort Duquesne Disaster European style Dysentery, swamp fever 1 mile per day Deaths-40 (F) :1,000 (B)


16 British commitments William Pitt Colonial policy 1758
Invest troops, money Escalate debt “America first” 1758 45,000 British 9,000 French Fort Duquesne falls Fort Pitt



19 Cost of War Conquest of Canada Treaty of Paris (1763) £4 million
10X French defense Treaty of Paris (1763) French concessions Mississippi River West (Spain) East (England) Florida (England)


21 The Empire in Transition
The New Imperialism The British and the Tribes Failure of the Proclamation of 1763 .

22 The Empire in Transition
The New Imperialism Battles over Trade and Taxes Sugar & Stamp Acts ( ) Sugar Act: reduced tariff on foreign molasses: six pence to three pence Stamp Act: most printed materials; act repealed “in all cases whatsoever” Persistent Colonial Grievances

23 The Empire in Transition
Stirrings of Revolt The Stamp Act Crisis Effects of the Stamp Act “Virginia Resolves” Taxation & rep. govt. Stamp Act Repealed The Tory’s Day of Judgment (Library of Congress)

24 The Empire in Transition
Stirrings of Revolt The Townshend Program Mutiny Act Townshend Duties Nonimportation Agreement .

25 The Empire in Transition
Stirrings of Revolt The Boston Massacre Rebellious Boston “Committee of Correspondence” The Boston Massacre (Library of Congress)

26 The Empire in Transition
Stirrings of Revolt The Philosophy of Revolt Sources of Revolutionary Ideology “No Taxation without Representation” “Virtual” and “Actual” Representation Sovereignty Debated "No Taxation without Representation!"

27 The Empire in Transition
Stirrings of Revolt Sites of Resistance Political Importance of Colonial Taverns The Tea Excitement The Tea Act The Boston “Tea Party” Consequences of the Coercive Acts .

28 The Empire in Transition
Cooperation and War New Sources of Authority The First Continental Congress

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