Presentation on theme: "Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America"— Presentation transcript:
1 Awakenings, Imperial Rivalry, and Rebellion in Colonial America
2 The Great Awakening, 1730s-1760s Major ThemesEvangelicals“bearers of good news”Undermined religious authority, orderPluralism, egalitarianismConversion experienceEnslaved Africans, IndiansIndividualismfree-will
3 Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason Religious Matters Geocentric vs. helio-centricDescartes (Calculus)John LockeEmpiricismRational universeReligious MattersSpectral evidence debunkedRationale Protestantism
4 Rationalists vs. Evangelicals “An unchurched people”displacementRevival of SupernaturalConstant revelationQuakers without pacifismReason rebukedMan may not know God through reason, but only through emotional rebirthConversion experience
5 Jonathan Edwards Scion of New England elite Solomon Stoddard“Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God”Fire & brimstoneMale % increaseA Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Works of God (1737-8)
6 George Whitefield English evangelical Itinerant Preacher Anti-rationalism (Church of England)Itinerant PreacherEngland, Whales(American tour)Maine to Georgiacelebrity
7 George Whitefield in America, 1739-41 Benjamin FranklinPrinting businessFranklin’s rationalism“He finished so admirably, that I emptied my Pocket wholly into the Collection’s Dish, Gold and all.”(80K copies)1:11 ratio
8 Emergence of Radicals Anti-educated clergy “calling” Democratic Removal of class distinctionPlebian vs. patricianNon-ordained ministryExhortersFemale preachers
9 Samson Occom, 1723-92 Mohegan convert Published : preached to Indian convertsPoverty wages1766: raised £11K in EnglandEducating IndiansDartmouthNatives excluded
10 Legacies of Great Awakening PluralismEvangelicalism“many ways to God”Separation of church and statetaxesChurch will corrupt state, not state corrupt church (R. Williams)Democracy?Toleration?
11 The Imperial Crisis: France & England Nine Years War ( )War of Spanish Succession ( )Seven Years War ( ); French-Indian War ( )Population (N. America)1750: NF=1/10 British
21 The Empire in Transition The New ImperialismThe British and the TribesFailure of the Proclamation of 1763.
22 The Empire in Transition The New ImperialismBattles over Trade and TaxesSugar & Stamp Acts ( )Sugar Act: reduced tariff on foreign molasses: six pence to three penceStamp Act: most printed materials; act repealed“in all cases whatsoever”Persistent Colonial Grievances
23 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of RevoltThe Stamp Act CrisisEffects of the Stamp Act“Virginia Resolves”Taxation & rep. govt.Stamp Act RepealedThe Tory’s Day of Judgment (Library of Congress)
24 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of RevoltThe Townshend ProgramMutiny ActTownshend DutiesNonimportation Agreement.
25 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of RevoltThe Boston MassacreRebellious Boston“Committee of Correspondence”The Boston Massacre (Library of Congress)
26 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of RevoltThe Philosophy of RevoltSources of Revolutionary Ideology“No Taxation without Representation”“Virtual” and “Actual” RepresentationSovereignty Debated"No Taxation without Representation!"
27 The Empire in Transition Stirrings of RevoltSites of ResistancePolitical Importance of Colonial TavernsThe Tea ExcitementThe Tea ActThe Boston “Tea Party”Consequences of the Coercive Acts.
28 The Empire in Transition Cooperation and WarNew Sources of AuthorityThe First Continental Congress