The Doctrines of Lutheranism Only valid source of Christian doctrine was the Bible Rejection of the Roman Catholic view that Christian doctrine was revealed both in the Bible and church traditions Only two sacraments-baptism and holy communion-was established by Jesus Christ-rejection of Roman Catholic belief in seven sacraments The Church was the whole body of the Christian faithful. Priesthood of all believers Luther-translated the Bible into German to make it more accessible to Christians Luther-abolished the monasteries and ended the requirement for celibacy of the clergy.
Anabaptists Radicals of the Protestant Reformation Especially influential in Western Germany-did appear in other countries Rejected infant baptism-insisted only real Christians were those who had undergone a conversion experience and had then been baptized Opposed taking of oaths and bearing of arms Opposed close relationship between religious and political authorities that generally existed in the 16 th century Believed in entire separation of church and state Active in the German Peasants’ Revolt of 1524-1525 Famous leaders: Thomas Munzer (German Anabaptist)-preached thorough religious reform and the overthrow of the existing political and social order- captured and executed in 1525 Menno Simons – preached simplicity in religious and social life-estab. the Mennonite movement-Amish are an offshoot of this
Calvinism in Practice Ended both monasticism and celibacy of clergy Emphasis on simplicity in worship Worship consisted of prayers, the singing of psalms, scripture readings, and a sermon Generally called Reformed churches on European continent- governed by laymen called elders elected by the congregation Emphasized a puritanical approach to life-renunciation of worldly pleasure Required church attendance Banned card playing, gambling, dancing, consumption of alcohol, theatre going, and swearing
The Peace of Augsburg In September 1555, the Peace of Augsburg made the division of Christendom permanent. Cuius regio, eius religio, the ruler of a land determines its religion. Gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state (either Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism) Lutherans were permitted to retain church lands confiscated before 1552. It did not extend recognition to Anabaptists and Calvinists. Lutheranism – predominant religion in Germany (esp. North and East) Most of Southern Germany including Austria remained Roman Catholic
Counter Reformation Protestant Source stop spread of Protestantism Ex: Spanish army forcing people to convert back to Catholicism – Charles V was king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor – wanted to stop spread of Protestantism Inquisition
The Catholic Reformation Catholic Reformation Catholic Source stop sale of indulgences (still have-not abolish) start seminaries -improve education -improve clergy morals -get better people in church positions Index of Forbidden Books Council of Trent