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Slide 1 Machiavelli to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada Major Rascon.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Machiavelli to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada Major Rascon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Machiavelli to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada Major Rascon

2 Slide 2 References Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Montross, War Through the Ages, pp , Montross, War Through the Ages, pp , Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp , Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp , Ropp, War in the Modern World,j pp.19-40, Ropp, War in the Modern World,j pp.19-40, 60-66

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives The student will know and understand: The contribution of Machiavelli with emphasis on his attitudes on war and ethics The contribution of Machiavelli with emphasis on his attitudes on war and ethics Spanish tactical evolution on land, emphasizing Cordoba and the Moor expulsion Spanish tactical evolution on land, emphasizing Cordoba and the Moor expulsion The Battle of Lepanto The Battle of Lepanto

4 Slide 4 Learning Objectives (cont.) The student will know and understand: The revolt in the Netherlands and the defeat of the Spanish Armada The revolt in the Netherlands and the defeat of the Spanish Armada The reforms of Maurice of Nassau The reforms of Maurice of Nassau The significant developments in weaponry during the mid-16 th century The significant developments in weaponry during the mid-16 th century

5 Slide 5 Machiavelli, Recognized link between military, social, and political sphere Recognized link between military, social, and political sphere Saw that new era of war had opened Saw that new era of war had opened Effective armies composed of natives Effective armies composed of natives Will to fight based on satisfaction with nation’s society Will to fight based on satisfaction with nation’s society

6 Slide 6 Machiavelli (cont.) Principles: - Quick, decisive defeat - Command to one individual Principles: - Quick, decisive defeat - Command to one individual - Training/discipline critical - Punishment must be severe “It is much safer to be feared than loved” These changes seen with innovations in Spain These changes seen with innovations in Spain

7 Slide 7 Spanish Tactical Evolutions Granada - eventually defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella Granada - eventually defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella Cordoba - very successful Spanish general Cordoba - very successful Spanish general Column - became basic fighting unit Column - became basic fighting unit Tercio - later, 3 columns became a Tercio Tercio - later, 3 columns became a Tercio

8 Slide 8 Conquest of Granada May Jan 1492 Background –Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille married –Their Goal - expel Moslem Moors from Spain –December Moslems seize Zahara –Response - Christians retaliate, Ferdinand and Isabella come and Isabella come to aid to aid

9 Slide 9 Results of Granada Successful Successful –April January 1492: Christians, in overwhelming force, repulsed all Moors –Ended 8 centuries of Moslem/Christian struggle Spanish Soldier became formidable Spanish Soldier became formidable Necessitated requirement for professional army Necessitated requirement for professional army

10 Slide 10 Gonzalo de Cordoba Used Economy of Force Used Economy of Force Arquebusier Protection Arquebusier Protection –Recognized potential and vulnerability Arquebusier –Provided protection while reloading with pikemen –Key in using small arms decisively on the battlefield Video-10min Matchlock Video-10min Matchlock

11 Slide 11 Column and Tercio Column created by King Ferdinand based on Cordoba’s experience Column created by King Ferdinand based on Cordoba’s experience –Mixed pikemen, halberdiers, arquebusiers, and sword-and-buckler men –Commanded by cabo de colunela (chief of column), or “colonel” –Originally used for admin and movement The Tercio Developed The Tercio Developed –Larger organization made up of 3 Colunelas

12 Slide 12 Spanish Square “Spanish Square” “Spanish Square” –Eliminated sword-and-buckler and halberdiers, leaving only pikemen and arquebusiers –Pikemen massed men front, 20 deep –Arquebusier at Corners Employment Employment –Arquebusiers would fire, then fall back to protection of pikemen while they reloaded Became basic fighting unit Became basic fighting unit Countermarch Countermarch Video –5min Spanish square Video –5min Spanish square

13 Slide 13 Battle of Lepanto Last significant galley battle Last significant galley battle Influenced by gunpowder but little changed from “infantry battle at sea” Influenced by gunpowder but little changed from “infantry battle at sea” Christians vs. Turks Christians vs. Turks Turks – 230 ships lost; Turks – 230 ships lost; 20,000 men killed Christians – 173 ships lost; Christians – 173 ships lost; 7,600 killed

14 Slide 14 Revolt in the Netherlands Netherlands inherited by Spain Netherlands inherited by Spain Dutch revolt: Dutch revolt: –Religious differences: Northern provinces strongly protestant; Spanish … Catholic –Initial Spanish success: 1585: Recapture of Antwerp by Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma –English intervene of side of rebels

15 Slide 15 Spanish Armada AO designed to invade England AO designed to invade England The Armada was to rendezvous with Parma’s army in Netherlands and cross channel The Armada was to rendezvous with Parma’s army in Netherlands and cross channel The Armada itself carried a subsidiary landing force The Armada itself carried a subsidiary landing force The English Plan The English Plan –Prevent the junction

16 Slide 16 The Destruction of the Armada English ships, guns, and gunnery proved decisively superior The Armada’s only chance was to close and attempt to board English used wind and speed to their advantage to escape boarding Spanish are too slow for smaller, faster English English employed speed and guns effectively

17 Slide 17 Spanish Losses Out of 130 Ships Out of 130 Ships –63 lost –English sank or captured 15 –19 wrecked on Scottish or Irish coast –Remaining 33 unknown Heralded decline of Spanish empire Heralded decline of Spanish empire Began England’s mastery of the seas Began England’s mastery of the seas Revolt lasted 21 years afterward, led by Maurice of Nassau Revolt lasted 21 years afterward, led by Maurice of Nassau

18 Slide 18 Maurice of Nassau Philosophies Continued Netherlands’ revolt Continued Netherlands’ revolt Restructured military using Romans as model Restructured military using Romans as model Reduced depth from 40 to 10 and then later down to 5 (the number who could effectively employ their arms) Reduced depth from 40 to 10 and then later down to 5 (the number who could effectively employ their arms) Frontage of 50 pikemen at 3 ft intervals (modern linear formations) Frontage of 50 pikemen at 3 ft intervals (modern linear formations) Formations had musketeers placed on the flanks 40 men, combined arms Formations had musketeers placed on the flanks 40 men, combined arms This smaller force made unit more flexible This smaller force made unit more flexible

19 Slide 19 Features of Army under Maurice of Nassau Troops rigorously taught drill by superiors Troops rigorously taught drill by superiors Long term enlistments of regular soldiers Long term enlistments of regular soldiers Good pay, regular professional army Good pay, regular professional army First military academy introduced First military academy introduced Encouraged development of new weapons - Gas and explosive shells - Mapmakers - Field glasses for observation Encouraged development of new weapons - Gas and explosive shells - Mapmakers - Field glasses for observation

20 Slide 20 New 16 th Century Weapons Musket replaced arquebus Musket replaced arquebus –Increased range –Greater stopping power Wheellock pistol Wheellock pistol –Renewed importance of cavalry –Now, less vulnerable to attack

21 Slide 21 Summary Machiavelli foresees changing military Machiavelli foresees changing military Spanish exploit new technology to become dominating force and create standing armies Spanish exploit new technology to become dominating force and create standing armies New naval tactics end “battle at sea” principles and lead to destruction of Armada New naval tactics end “battle at sea” principles and lead to destruction of Armada Maurice of Nassau makes innovative changes to create a superior force Maurice of Nassau makes innovative changes to create a superior force Steady, increased use of new weapons and gun powder on the battlefield Steady, increased use of new weapons and gun powder on the battlefield

22 Slide 22 Questions?


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