Presentation on theme: "Alexander the Great Educated by Aristotle (personal tutor) Very impulsive A mystic A scholar Very handsome and strong Became king at twenty years old Followed."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander the Great Educated by Aristotle (personal tutor) Very impulsive A mystic A scholar Very handsome and strong Became king at twenty years old Followed Philip as the leader of the Hellenic League
Jews under Ptolemy Rule Ptolemy didn’t force Greek culture and religion Jews were worshiped as they wanted Many Jews moved and settle in Egypt They had become dispersed through the Greek empire 280 BC - Septuagint (Greek translation of Hebrew Scripture)
Jews under Antiochus (Syrian) Rule 198 BC - Syrian Grecian Empire regained control of Judea. Continued to be a pawn Politically it was peaceful for a while Learned and adopted the Greek language Learned and adopted the Greek culture
Rome comes on the Scene The Jews are still under the Greek Empire Rome has three Punic wars with Carthage –Carthage is trying to hold Rome down –Rome is trying to grow. –Philip of Macedon helped Carthage and upset Rome. Syrian Grecian Empire having trouble from the East and West.
Life in Jerusalem High Priest serves as the leader for Judea –Not spiritual leader but political leader Onias IV and Jason (brothers) compete over the High Priest position. –Jason bribes Antiochus and is appointed Then Menelaus, Jason servant, pays more and Antiochus names him High Priest. –This excites the Jews because Menelaus isn’t qualified to be High Priest.
Life in Jerusalem (cont…) False word came of Antiochus’ death Jason lead a revolt against Menelaus –The Jews backed the revolt Antiochus sent soldiers stop the revolt and reinstate Menelaus –Jews were sold as slaves –Part of the wall was destroyed –Took over the Temple –Antiochus tried to wipe out their Religion
Life in Jerusalem (cont.) Antiochus’ men tried to force Mattathias Hasmoneas, an older priest, to worship Zeus Mattathias refused and started a revolt Syrian army attacked about 1,000 of the Pious Ones on the Sabbath and they wouldn’t fight –Mattahias convinced them to fight if attacked. –Before his death he appointed Judas Maccabaeus military leader. His oldest son, Simon, to be their advisor
Life in Jerusalem (cont.) Judas Maccabaeus lead guerrilla type warfare He hid in the villages by day and attacked Syrian forces by night. Though outnumbered he defeated the Syrian forced. The Maccabean revolt was in full swing After Antiochus’ death, Judas and his men regained control of Jerusalem and the Temple. The Temple was cleansed of Zeus Hanukkah (festival of lights) was born
Hasidim Known as the Pious Ones Date of organization unknown Built traditions to ensure observance of the law. –Feared disobedience would cause more punishment –Though obedience would obligate God to bless –The High Priesthood had become corrupt so they viewed themselves as priest (Exodus 19:6) –Ritual praying, fasting, washing of hands, etc… This became the traditions Jesus rebukes Built rules around the laws Their Oral traditions became as binding as the Law
Pharisees Grew from the Hasidim during the Maccabean revolt ( BC) –‘Separated ones’ because they separated themselves when Judas continued the revolt after restoring Jerusalem. –They were at odds with the Maccabean family (later known as Sadducees) –Kept to the laws that could be measured (circumcision, tithe, etc…) –“Straightest of the sects” according to Paul in Acts 26:5
Sadducees Opposed the Pharisees Politically minded rather than spiritually Believed in God –Didn’t believe in the traditions of the Pharisees –Didn’t look for a further reward for obedience –They didn’t believe in the resurrection, angels or life after death
Essenes Different from most of the other sects –Withdrew from society and built communities. Zealots Came into existence after Roman control –Believed they should fight to establish God’s predicted kingdom. –Simon, one of Jesus’ apostles, was a Zealot
The Sanhedrin (High Court) Start Date Unknown –Some date back to Moses Not mentioned in Scriptures Name is Greek –We know it existed before Roman control (maybe about 200 BC) By the New Testament it is the High Court and had authority under Roman control.
Roman Empire Rome watched Syrian Empire weaken Rome gave political aid to the Maccabean Revolt Parthia took most of the Syrian territory from the East. In 75 BC Asia Minor was under Roman control Rome wanted to control 50 miles from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Life in Jerusalem After the assassination of Simon, John Hyrcanus took his fathers place in 134 BC. He subdued the Idumaeans (Greek name for Edom) He took out the Temple in Samaria After John’s death the Maccabean revolt died He was succeeded by his son Aristobulus He was succeeded by his half brother Alexandar Jannaeus.
Life in Jerusalem The family was at odds with the Pharisees. Jannaeus was being ran off by the Pharisees –He regained the support of the people –He crucified 800 of the Pharisees who revolted and killed their families before their dying eyes. Salome his wife followed him on the throne and made peace with the Pharisees. –She make her oldest son Hyrcanus II high priest and Aristobulus head of the military.
Life in Jerusalem After Salome's death, war broke out between her sons for control. –Antipater lent his support and army to Hyrcanus to revolt against Aristobulus. –He did and won in the end. Hyrcanus also made friends with the Jews Antipater was a shrewd man who also made friends with Pompey of Rome.. –He was given the position of Procurator of Judea –Little did Pompey know that Jews hated Idumaeans (Edomites)
Life in Jerusalem Antipater’s son Herod eventually became the official king of Judea, under Roman control –A gifted leader Convinced Rome to let the Jews worship according to Law of Moses to keep down revolts –The Jews didn’t like him because he was an Edomite (not a native Jew) His lifestyle made a mockery of his “Jewish religion” –Ruler when John and Jesus are born