Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 21, Section Chapter 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790–1848) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21, Section Chapter 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790–1848) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21, Section Chapter 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790–1848) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. World History: Connection to Today

2 Chapter 21, Section Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 21: Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790–1848) Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Section 2: Revolution of 1830 and 1848 Section 3: Latin American Wars for Independence World History: Connection to Today

3 Chapter 21, Section An Age of Ideologies What were the goals of conservatives? How did liberalism and nationalism challenge the old order? Why was Europe plagued by revolts after 1815? 1

4 Chapter 21, Section Opposing Ideologies At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to turn the clock back to the way things had been before Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposed by the Congress of Vienna. The clash of people with opposing ideologies, or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil. 1

5 Chapter 21, Section What Were the Goals of Conservatives? Conservatives pursued the following goals: Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe. Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors. Maintain an established church. Suppress revolutionary ideas. 1

6 Chapter 21, Section Liberals wanted: Governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers. Natural rights of liberty, equality, and prosperity. Rulers elected by the people and responsible to them. A republican form of government. Laissez-faire economics. National groups who shared a common heritage set out to win their own states. Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity. Nationalism often bred intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups. Challenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals and nationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. LIBERALISMNATIONALISM 1 The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge

7 Chapter 21, Section Revolts Against the Old Order In the the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers. In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy. Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order. 1

8 Chapter 21, Section Chapter 1 Assessment Liberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of government Serbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British. b) the Ottomans. c) the Hapsburgs. d) the French. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. 1

9 Chapter 21, Section 1 Liberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of government Serbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British. b) the Ottomans. c) the Hapsburgs. d) the French. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. Chapter 1 Assessment

10 Chapter 21, Section Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830 and 1848? How did revolution spread in 1830? What were the results of the 1848 revolutions? 2

11 Chapter 21, Section Why Did Revolutions Occur in France in 1830 and 1848? Charles X, a strong believer in absolutism, suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press. When the government tried to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the streets Moderate liberals put in place a constitutional monarchy, and chose Louis Philippe as king. Liberals and radicals rebelled and took control of Paris. Revolutionary leaders proclaimed a Second Republic. Louis Philippe abdicated.

12 Chapter 21, Section How Did Revolution Spread in 1830? The revolts in Paris inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe. Most were suppressed by military force. But here and there, rebels did win changes from conservative governments. Even when they failed, revolutionaries frightened rulers badly enough to encourage reform later in the century. Belgium The one notable success for Europe’s revolutionaries in 1830 took place in Belgium. The Congress of Vienna had united Belgium and Holland under the Dutch king. The Belgians resented this arrangement and pushed for independence. In 1831, Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution. Poland Nationalists in Poland staged an uprising in However, the rebels failed to gain widespread support, and were brutally crushed by Russian forces. 2

13 Chapter 21, Section Revolutions in Europe, 1830 and

14 Chapter 21, Section Revolutions of 1848 In Austria, revolts caused Metternich to resign. The Austrian government agreed to reforms, but these gains were temporary. With Russian help, Austrian forces defeated the rebels. Many were imprisoned, executed, or exiled. Nationalists in Italy rebelled against Austrian Hapsburg rulers. They expelled the pope and installed a nationalist government. Before long, Austrian troops ousted the new government and the French army restored the pope to power. In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly. Within a year, Frederick dissolved the assembly and issued his own constitution keeping power in his own hands. In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across Europe. 2

15 Chapter 21, Section Why Did the Uprisings Fail? Rulers used military force to suppress the uprisings. Revolutionaries did not have mass support. A growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reforms. By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in

16 Chapter 21, Section In 1848, revolutions took place in all of the following places, except a) Paris. b) Vienna. c) Rome. d) Warsaw. What is one reason that many of the uprisings failed? a) Revolutionaries did not have mass support. b) Many peasants sided with the monarchies. c) Revolutionaries were not certain of their goals. d) Many radicals were unwilling to fight for what they believed in. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. 2 Section 2 Assessment

17 Chapter 21, Section 2 In 1848, revolutions took place in all of the following places, except a) Paris. b) Vienna. c) Rome. d) Warsaw. What is one reason that many of the uprisings failed? a) Revolutionaries did not have mass support. b) Many peasants sided with the monarchies. c) Revolutionaries were not certain of their goals. d) Many radicals were unwilling to fight for what they believed in. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. Section 2 Assessment

18 Chapter 21, Section Latin American Wars of Independence What caused discontent in Latin America? How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence? How did nations of South America win independence? 3

19 Chapter 21, Section What Caused Discontent in Latin America? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. Creoles resented their second-class status. Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom. 3

20 Chapter 21, Section Struggles for Independence Spanish-ruled lands declared their independence in the early 1820s. Local leaders set up the United Provinces of Central America. The union soon fragmented into separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. Father Miguel Hidalgo and José Morales led popular revolts. Rebels led by Agustín de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy, creating an independent Mexico. Iturbide took the title of emperor, but was quickly overthrown. Liberal Mexicans set up the Republic of Mexico. In 1791, Toussaint L’Ouverture led slaves in revolt. By 1798, enslaved Haitians had been freed. In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to recapture Haiti. Napoleon’s forces agreed to a truce, or temporary peace. In 1804, Haitian leaders declared independence. CENTRAL AMERICAMEXICOHAITI 3

21 Chapter 21, Section Independence in South America Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In 1816, José de San Martín helped Argentina win freedom from Spain. He then joined forces with Bolívar. Bolívar tried to unite the liberated lands into a single nation called Gran Columbia. However, bitter rivalries made that dream impossible. Before long, Gran Columbia split into three independent countries: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador. In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence. 3

22 Chapter 21, Section Independent Nations of Latin America About

23 Chapter 21, Section Independence Movements in Latin America 3 European domination of Latin America Spread of Enlightenment ideas American and French revolutions Growth of nationalism in Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Revolutionary leaders emerge Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king Toussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave revolt in Haiti Bolívar, San Martín, and others lead successful revolts in Latin America Colonial rule ends in much of Latin America Attempts made to rebuild economies 18 separate republics set up Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence Immediate EffectsLong-Term Effects Long-Term CausesImmediate Causes

24 Chapter 21, Section Section 3 Assessment Toussaint l’Ouverture led a slave revolt in a) Mexico. b) Haiti. c) Ecuador. d) Gran Columbia. Who was known as “The Liberator”? a) Miguel Hidalgo b) José de San Martín c) Simon Bolívar d) Agustín de Iturbide Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here. 3

25 Chapter 21, Section Section 3 Assessment 3 Toussaint l’Ouverture led a slave revolt in a) Mexico. b) Haiti. c) Ecuador. d) Gran Columbia. Who was known as “The Liberator”? a) Miguel Hidalgo b) José de San Martín c) Simon Bolívar d) Agustín de Iturbide Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.Click Here.


Download ppt "Chapter 21, Section Chapter 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790–1848) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google