3An Age of Ideologies What were the goals of conservatives? 1An Age of IdeologiesWhat were the goals of conservatives?How did liberalism and nationalism challenge the old order?Why was Europe plagued by revolts after 1815?
4Opposing Ideologies1At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to turn the clock back to the way things had been before 1789.Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposed by the Congress of Vienna.The clash of people with opposing ideologies, or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil.
5What Were the Goals of Conservatives? 1Conservatives pursued the following goals:Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe.Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors.Maintain an established church.Suppress revolutionary ideas.
6The Liberal and Nationalist Challenge 1The Liberal and Nationalist ChallengeChallenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals and nationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.LIBERALISMNATIONALISMNational groups who shared a common heritage set out to win their own states.Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity.Nationalism often bred intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups.Liberals wanted:Governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers.Natural rights of liberty, equality, and prosperity.Rulers elected by the people and responsible to them.A republican form of government.Laissez-faire economics.
7Revolts Against the Old Order 1Revolts Against the Old OrderSpurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order.In the the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers.In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy.
8Chapter 1 Assessment1Liberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of governmentSerbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British b) the Ottomans c) the Hapsburgs d) the French.Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
91Chapter 1 AssessmentLiberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of governmentSerbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British b) the Ottomans c) the Hapsburgs d) the French.Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
102Revolutions of 1830 and 1848Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830 and 1848?How did revolution spread in 1830?What were the results of the 1848 revolutions?
11Why Did Revolutions Occur in France in 1830 and 1848? 218301848Charles X, a strong believer in absolutism, suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press.When the government tried to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the streets.Liberals and radicals rebelled and took control of Paris.Louis Philippe abdicated.Moderate liberals put in place a constitutional monarchy, and chose Louis Philippe as king.Revolutionary leaders proclaimed a Second Republic.
12How Did Revolution Spread in 1830? 2The revolts in Paris inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe. Most were suppressed by military force. But here and there, rebels did win changes from conservative governments. Even when they failed, revolutionaries frightened rulers badly enough to encourage reform later in the century.Belgium The one notable success for Europe’s revolutionaries in 1830 took place in Belgium. The Congress of Vienna had united Belgium and Holland under the Dutch king. The Belgians resented this arrangement and pushed for independence. In 1831, Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution.Poland Nationalists in Poland staged an uprising in However, the rebels failed to gain widespread support, and were brutally crushed by Russian forces.
13Revolutions in Europe, 1830 and 1848 2Revolutions in Europe, 1830 and 1848
142Revolutions of 1848In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across Europe.In Austria, revolts caused Metternich to resign. The Austrian government agreed to reforms, but these gains were temporary With Russian help, Austrian forces defeated the rebels. Many were imprisoned, executed, or exiled.Nationalists in Italy rebelled against Austrian Hapsburg rulers They expelled the pope and installed a nationalist government Before long, Austrian troops ousted the new government and the French army restored the pope to power.In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly. Within a year, Frederick dissolved the assembly and issued his own constitution keeping power in his own hands.
15Why Did the Uprisings Fail? 2Why Did the Uprisings Fail?By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789.Rulers used military force to suppress the uprisings.Revolutionaries did not have mass support.A growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reforms.
162Section 2 AssessmentIn 1848, revolutions took place in all of the following places, except a) Paris b) Vienna c) Rome d) Warsaw.What is one reason that many of the uprisings failed? a) Revolutionaries did not have mass support b) Many peasants sided with the monarchies c) Revolutionaries were not certain of their goals d) Many radicals were unwilling to fight for what they believed in.Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
172Section 2 AssessmentIn 1848, revolutions took place in all of the following places, except a) Paris b) Vienna c) Rome d) Warsaw.What is one reason that many of the uprisings failed? a) Revolutionaries did not have mass support b) Many peasants sided with the monarchies c) Revolutionaries were not certain of their goals d) Many radicals were unwilling to fight for what they believed in.Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
18Latin American Wars of Independence 3Latin American Wars of IndependenceWhat caused discontent in Latin America?How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence?How did nations of South America win independence?
19What Caused Discontent in Latin America? 3What Caused Discontent in Latin America?By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule.Creoles resented their second-class status.Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites.Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish.Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
20Struggles for Independence 3HAITIMEXICOCENTRAL AMERICAIn 1791, Toussaint L’Ouverture led slaves in revolt.By 1798, enslaved Haitians had been freed.In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to recapture Haiti.Napoleon’s forces agreed to a truce, or temporary peace.In 1804, Haitian leaders declared independence.Father Miguel Hidalgo and José Morales led popular revolts.Rebels led by Agustín de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy, creating an independent Mexico.Iturbide took the title of emperor, but was quickly overthrown.Liberal Mexicans set up the Republic of Mexico.Spanish-ruled lands declared their independence in the early 1820s.Local leaders set up the United Provinces of Central America.The union soon fragmented into separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica.
21Independence in South America 3Independence in South AmericaIn South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence.Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.In 1816, José de San Martín helped Argentina win freedom from Spain. He then joined forces with Bolívar.Bolívar tried to unite the liberated lands into a single nation called Gran Columbia. However, bitter rivalries made that dream impossible. Before long, Gran Columbia split into three independent countries: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador.
22Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844 3Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844
23Independence Movements in Latin America 3Independence Movements in Latin AmericaLong-Term CausesImmediate CausesPeople of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injusticesRevolutionary leaders emergeNapoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish kingEuropean domination of Latin AmericaSpread of Enlightenment ideasAmerican and French revolutionsGrowth of nationalism in Latin AmericaImmediate EffectsLong-Term EffectsToussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave revolt in HaitiBolívar, San Martín, and others lead successful revolts in Latin AmericaColonial rule ends in much of Latin AmericaAttempts made to rebuild economies18 separate republics set upContinuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence
24Section 3 Assessment3Toussaint l’Ouverture led a slave revolt in a) Mexico b) Haiti c) Ecuador d) Gran Columbia.Who was known as “The Liberator”? a) Miguel Hidalgo b) José de San Martín c) Simon Bolívar d) Agustín de IturbideWant to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
25Section 3 Assessment3Toussaint l’Ouverture led a slave revolt in a) Mexico b) Haiti c) Ecuador d) Gran Columbia.Who was known as “The Liberator”? a) Miguel Hidalgo b) José de San Martín c) Simon Bolívar d) Agustín de IturbideWant to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.