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Determiners and Adjectivals Ed McCorduck English 402--Grammar SUNY Cortland

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1 Determiners and Adjectivals Ed McCorduck English 402--Grammar SUNY Cortland

2 basic structure of all noun phrases (NPs): Det (ADJpr1)(ADJpr2)…(ADJprn) N (ADJps1)(ADJps2)…(ADJpsn) Det – determiner ( ) - optional element (not required to be expressed) ADJpr – prenoun adjectival/modifier 1, 2 … n – from one to an infinite number N – noun as headword ADJps – postnoun adjectival/modifier slide 2: basic rule for the structure of all NPs English 402: Grammar

3 an ADJpr can be a member of the word class adjective a member of the word class noun a verb in the –en form (see the chapter 3 “Form Classes” lecture) a verb in the –ing form (see the chapter 3 “Form Classes” lecture) slide 3: prenominal adjectives English 402: Grammar

4 an ADJps can be a verb in the –en form (see the chapter 3 “Form Classes” lecture) a verb in the –ing form (see the chapter 3 “Form Classes” lecture) a prepositional phrase (PP) a relative clause slide 4: postnominal adjectivals English 402: Grammar

5 exx NP: a ghost Det N NP:the friendly ghost Det ADJ N NP:this friendly smiling ghost Det ADJ ADJ N NP:those intrepid lion tamers Det ADJ ADJ N NP: our fools on parade Det N ADJ NP: each contaminated pizza in the fridge that I ate Det ADJ N ADJ ADJ NP: Osborne’s dim-witted claptrap Det ADJ N slide 5: examples of NPs with various Dets and ADJs English 402: Grammar

6 determiners articles o definite article the o indefinite article a / an slide 6: types of determiners: articles English 402: Grammar

7 General rule: the indefinite article is used for the first mention of a noun (phrase) and the definite article is used for all subsequent mentions of it. exx I saw a shooting star. The shooting star was blood- red. I took the shooting star as an ill omen. slide 7: articles with first and subsequent mention English 402: Grammar

8 Articles can have specific or nonspecific reference. exx I saw a shooting star. indefinite article specific reference A shooting star can portend disaster. indefinite article nonspecific (general) reference slide 8: specific and nonspecific reference of articles English 402: Grammar

9 A revolt started in the mailroom. The leaders of the revolt indefinite article definite article specific reference demanded more milk-and-cookie breaks. A revolt is an act of treason. Those who lead the revolt indefinite article definite article nonspecific reference nonspecific reference desire only bloodshed, chaos and strife. slide 9: first and subsquent mention and specific and nonspecific reference English 402: Grammar

10 determiners articles o zero article (no explicit article used)  with (many) proper names slide 10: the “zero” article English 402: Grammar

11  with the first mention of plural countable nouns (alongside the determiner some only when the reference is specific) exx Lay (some) lilies on my grave. *Some lilies/Lilies are symbols of resurrection. slide 11: use of the “zero” article with plural count nouns with specific reference English 402: Grammar

12  with noncount nouns (alongside the determiner some only when the reference is specific) exx *Some quicksand/Quicksand kills. For sure, quicksand is one bad-ass mother. We ran right into (some) quicksand. The quicksand took most of our hiking party. slide 12: use of the “zero” article with uncountable nouns English 402: Grammar

13 possessives exx my your our his her its their slide 13: types of determiners: possessives English 402: Grammar Antonio’s the undertaker’s

14 demonstratives exx this that slide 14: types of determiners: demonstratives English 402: Grammar these those

15 quantifiers exx each every all several slide 15: types of determiners: quantifiers English 402: Grammar many much


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