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N Gilded Age Politics n C. 1876—1900. Gilded Age Politics n The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Warner (1873) n Political equilibrium n Civil service.

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Presentation on theme: "N Gilded Age Politics n C. 1876—1900. Gilded Age Politics n The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Warner (1873) n Political equilibrium n Civil service."— Presentation transcript:

1 n Gilded Age Politics n C. 1876—1900

2 Gilded Age Politics n The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Warner (1873) n Political equilibrium n Civil service reform, currency, and the tariff

3 Gilded Age Politics n Strict Constructionists n Commander in Chief n Enforcer of laws passed by Congress n Head of political party

4 Gilded Age Politics n High Voter Participation— Why? n (1) People believed that the issues were important n (2) People believed that their votes counted n (3) Politics = Entertainment

5 Gilded Age Politics n Involved electorate, but what determined how it voted? n Republicans: Protestants of English and German descent, Southern Blacks, and Union Civil War Veterans. Ohio River Valley, the West, and New England

6 Gilded Age Politics n Democrats: Southern Whites, Roman Catholics, Jewish people, immigrants under the influence of party bosses. n Campaigns—Republicans: n The Bloody Shirt n Veterans’ Pensions

7 Gilded Age Politics n Nativism n Campaigns—Democrats: n Republicans will take your booze away n Played to Race in the South n Maintained that Republicans were corrupt

8 Gilded Age Politics n Why the push for Civil Service Reform? n President Ulysses S. Grant (R) ( ) ( )

9 Gilded Age Politics n Patronage n Roscoe Conkling— n Stalwart n James Blaine— n Half-Breed

10 Gilded Age Politics President Rutherford B. Hayes (R) ( ) ( ) President Rutherford B. Hayes (R) ( ) ( )

11 Gilded Age Politics President James A. Garfield (R) ( ) (1881) President James A. Garfield (R) ( ) (1881)

12 Garfield was shot on 2 July 1881 and died on 19 September

13 Gilded Age Politics A disgruntled patronage seeker, Charles J. Guiteau (1840?-1882), assassinated Garfield

14 Gilded Age Politics President Chester A. Arthur (R) ( ) ( ) President Chester A. Arthur (R) ( ) ( )

15 Gilded Age Politics n Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) “Merit-based system” n Put approximately 14% of Federal Jobs under classified services; jobs were obtained through competitive examinations.

16 Gilded Age Politics n The Tariff n By 1888, over 4,000 items imported into the US had duties of roughly 45%. n Protectionism n Created tensions between industry and agriculture

17 Gilded Age Politics n Arthur appointed a special Tariff Commission (1882) n Recommended lowering the tariff 20-25% n “Riders” n Mongrel Tariff (1883)

18 Gilded Age Politics n The Underwood Tariff (1913) n Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913) n Currency n debtors vs. creditors

19 Legal Tender— US can require creditors to accept paper money as payment for debt. The Fed printed $450,000,000 Greenbacks

20 Gilded Age Politics n Hepburn v. Griswold (1870) n Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase ( ) n Specie Resumption Act (1874)

21 nCnCnCnCoinage Act (1873) nSnSnSnSherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)—required Federal Government to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month with Federal Bank Notes

22 The Agrarian Revolt n (1) High railroad rates in farming regions n (2) Overcharged and ripped off by middlemen n (3) Hurt by high tariff n (4) Victimized by eastern bankers n (5) Not enough money

23 The Agrarian Revolt n The Grange n The Farmers’ Alliance n Cooperatives n Crop Sub- Treasuries n The Populists

24 The Agrarian Revolt Mary E. Lease ( ) Mary E. Lease ( )

25 The Agrarian Revolt n Populist Platform endorsed at the Party Convention, Omaha, Nebraska 4 July 1892: n (1) Crop sub-treasury n (2) Free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to 1 n (3) Graduated income tax

26 The Agrarian Revolt n (4) Nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones n (5) Eight-hour workday n (6) Immigration restrictions n (7) Initiative, Referendum, and Recall

27 The Agrarian Revolt n (8) Australian Ballot n (9) Direct election of United States Senators n (10) At least $50.00 in circulation per capita

28 The Agrarian Revolt n Presidential Election of 1892 n James B. Weaver ( ) (P) n Carried Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, and Nevada

29 The Agrarian Revolt n Presidential Election of 1896 n William Jennings Bryan (D) ( )

30 The Agrarian Revolt William McKinley (R) ( ) ( ) William McKinley (R) ( ) ( )

31 Bryan lost the election. Why? Bryan Altgeld

32 The Agrarian Revolt n Exuded Protestant evangelism n Republicans would not join the Populist/Democrat fusion n Many believed he was communistic or anarchistic; American labor did not join the American farmer

33 Legacies of the 1896 Election n A new campaigning style n Ascendancy of the industrial over the agricultural n Beginning of the end of American mass political participation n Decline of Party and the rise of Special Interest Groups

34 The Progressive Era n The desire to use government as an agency of human welfare n Antecedents of Progressivism: n (1) Movement owed a great deal to Populism n (2) Social Critics and Writers—

35 The Progressive Era n Individuals described by Theodore Roosevelt as the “lunatic fringe of muckrakers” n a. Henry Demarest Lloyd used articles to attack monopoly including, “Story of a Great Monopoly” in Atlantic Monthly (1881)

36 The Progressive Era b. Ida M. Tarbell also targeted John D. Rockefeller with her History of the Standard Oil Co.

37 The Progressive Era c. Lincoln Steffens wrote about municipal corruption in Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis for McClure’s, Everybody’s, and Cosmopolitan c. Lincoln Steffens wrote about municipal corruption in Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis for McClure’s, Everybody’s, and Cosmopolitan

38 The Progressive Era n Four features of Progressivism: n Democratic n Direct primaries n Initiative, referendum, and recall n Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913)

39 The Progressive Era n Direct election of US Senators (XVII Amendment 1913) n Government efficiency n City Manager n Staunton, Virginia (1908) n National Association of City Managers

40 The Progressive Era n Governor Robert M. “Fighting Bob” La Follette (R) ( ) n Legislative Reference Bureau n “Wisconsin idea”

41 The Progressive Era n Regulation n Increased tendency to direct some business activities through federal regulations n Social Justice n Settlement House movement

42 The Progressive Era Jane Addams ( )

43 The Progressive Era Ellen G. Starr ( )

44 The Progressive Era Hull House Chicago, Illinois (1889)

45 The Progressive Era n The National Child Labor Committee (1904) n By 1914, 35 state legislatures had passed laws prohibiting children under age fourteen from working

46 The Progressive Era n Florence Kelly ( ) n National Consumers’ League n Sociologist Louis D. Brandeis

47 Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire, New York (25 March 1911)

48 The Progressive Era Liquor Prohibition— ”manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors... prohibited.” (XVIII Amendment 1919)

49 nPnPnPnPresidential Election of 1900 nWnWnWnWilliam Jennings Bryan (D) ( )

50

51 Leon F. Czolgosz ( ) assassinated William McKinley (1901)

52 McKinley James B. Parker

53 The Progressive Era President Theodore Roosevelt (R) ( ) ( ) President Theodore Roosevelt (R) ( ) ( )

54 The Progressive Era n Roosevelt wished to avoid socialism and a return to laissez faire n Used the “carrot and the stick” approach n Anthracite Coal Strike (May-October 1902)

55 The Progressive Era n John Mitchell ( ) n United Mine Workers’ Union

56 The Progressive Era n 20% wage increase n Eight-hour workday n Union recognition

57 The Progressive Era nGnGnGnGeorge F. Baer ( ) led the mine operators

58 General John Schofield ( )

59 nBnBnBnBinding arbitration nEnEnEnEverybody got something: n1n1n1n10% pay increase nNnNnNnNine-hour workday nOnOnOnOperators not required to recognize the United Mine Workers’ Union

60 n Roosevelt the “Trust Buster” n Northern Securities Company

61 The Progressive Era US Attorney General Philander C. Knox ( )

62 The Progressive Era n Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904) n US Supreme Court ruled that the NSC was an “unreasonable restraint of trade” and ordered it dissolved

63 The Progressive Era Bureau of Corporations within the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) to collect statistics and investigate the activities of corporations. Bureau of Corporations within the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) to collect statistics and investigate the activities of corporations.

64 The Progressive Era n Presidential Election of 1904 n Alton B. Parker (D) ( )

65 The Progressive Era President Roosevelt speaking in Hannibal, Missouri President Roosevelt speaking in Hannibal, Missouri

66 The Progressive Era Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906)

67 LTC Roosevelt and the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment (Rough Riders), San Juan Hill, Cuba 1898

68 The Progressive Era In the Spanish- American War (1898), 5,462 Americans died, but only 379 in combat

69 The Progressive Era n Meat Inspection Act (1906) n Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

70 The Progressive Era In 1905, by the authority of the Forest Reserve Act (1891), TR placed 172 million acres under Federal protection

71 n Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906) n As Roosevelt’s Administration progressed, he favored: n Income tax n Inheritance tax n Greater regulation of Business n Industrial Safety Regulations

72 The Progressive Era n Presidential Election of 1908 n William Jennings Bryan (D) ( )

73 The Progressive Era William Howard Taft (R) ( ) ( )

74 The Progressive Era Taft never wished to run for president, but he could not say “NO” to Teddy Roosevelt Taft never wished to run for president, but he could not say “NO” to Teddy Roosevelt Major Archibald Butt, Aid to TR and Taft

75 Taft’s specially designed White House bathtub

76 The Progressive Era Roosevelt assumed that Taft would continue his activist progressive policies, but he was badly disappointed Roosevelt assumed that Taft would continue his activist progressive policies, but he was badly disappointed

77 The Progressive Era n Presidential Election of 1912 n Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive or “Bull Moose” Party

78 The Progressive Era Woodrow Wilson (D) ( ) ( )

79 The Federal Reserve System


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