Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783
Colonial Products and Trade
Structure of Colonial Society 1760s an optimistic post-war period Striking ethnic and racial diversity 60% of population under twenty-one years old Relatively high per-capita GDP
Breakdown of Political Trust 1760—George III ascends throne – Despite limited ability, wants to take more active role in government Parliamentary sovereignty – English officials assume that Parliament must have ultimate authority Colonists try to reserve internal colonial authority for their own legislatures – Americans not represented at all in Parliament – Colonists insist only colonial assemblies should represent Americans
Eroding the Bonds of Empire Large, expensive debt and army left in America from Seven Years’ War Colonists doubt the army’s value Pontiac’s War – Exposes the British army’s weakness Colonists determined to settle trans- Appalachian West Proclamation of 1763 bans settlement in trans-Appalachian West
Paying Off the National Debt Prime Minister George Grenville attempts to reduce England’s war debt Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act) A series of other Acts will be passed that will lead to protest and all out war!!!!
Popular Protest Sons of Liberty protest includes riots, mob violence, and boycotts – Boston Massacre – Boston Tea Party (response to the Coercive Acts)
Steps Toward Independence Sept 1774—First Continental Congress in response to Coercive Acts Congress commends urging forcible resistance Lexington and Concord (April 1775) “The Shot Heard Around the World”
Beginning “The World Over Again” British colonial governments collapse Second Continental Congress—action and inaction – June 1775—Organize the colonies for war (George Washington appointed commander in chief) British action that makes compromise unlikely – British blockade colonists’ trade January 1776—Thomas Paine’s Common Sense – Convinces ordinary colonists to sever ties with Britain Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence – July 4—Declaration of Independence issued – “all men are created equal” and “king is the cause”
Fighting for Independence British confident of victory – Larger population, more resources – Naval supremacy British underestimate Americans’ commitment to their political ideology Continental army to be a fighting force and symbol of the republican cause Does not go well for Americans for the first two years
The French Alliance Effects of Saratoga (Oct 1777) – Convinces France that colonists are serious enough to become formal allies – British sue for peace to prevent Franco-American alliance but it is too late
The American Revolution, 1775–1781
The Loyalist Dilemma More than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at war’s end Loyalists share basic ideology with Patriots Loyalists see rebellion as endangering “life, liberty, and property” Loyalists treated poorly by both sides – British never fully trust Loyalists – Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some
Winning the Peace American negotiators are John Jay, Ben Franklin, and John Adams Peace Treaty of 1783 – U.S. independence recognized – U.S. gets all territory east of Mississippi River, between Canada and Florida – U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic – U.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists collect debts
Preserving Independence The American Revolution begins construction of new form of government Question remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people?