3 Structure of Colonial Society 1760s an optimistic post-war periodStriking ethnic and racial diversity60% of population under twenty-one years oldRelatively high per-capita GDP2
4 Breakdown of Political Trust 1760—George III ascends throneDespite limited ability, wants to take more active role in governmentParliamentary sovereigntyEnglish officials assume that Parliament must have ultimate authorityColonists try to reserve internal colonial authority for their own legislaturesAmericans not represented at all in ParliamentColonists insist only colonial assemblies should represent Americans3
5 Eroding the Bonds of Empire Large, expensive debt and army left in America from Seven Years’ WarColonists doubt the army’s valuePontiac’s WarExposes the British army’s weaknessColonists determined to settle trans-Appalachian WestProclamation of 1763 bans settlement in trans-Appalachian West
6 Paying Off the National Debt Prime Minister George Grenville attempts to reduce England’s war debtRevenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act)A series of other Acts will be passed that will lead to protest and all out war!!!!
8 Popular ProtestSons of Liberty protest includes riots, mob violence, and boycottsBoston MassacreBoston Tea Party (response to the Coercive Acts)7
9 Steps Toward Independence Sept 1774—First Continental Congress in response to Coercive ActsCongress commends urging forcible resistanceLexington and Concord (April 1775)“The Shot Heard Around the World”17
10 Beginning “The World Over Again” British colonial governments collapseSecond Continental Congress—action and inactionJune 1775—Organize the colonies for war (George Washington appointed commander in chief)British action that makes compromise unlikelyBritish blockade colonists’ tradeJanuary 1776—Thomas Paine’s Common SenseConvinces ordinary colonists to sever ties with BritainJefferson writes Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4—Declaration of Independence issued“all men are created equal” and “king is the cause”19
11 Fighting for Independence British confident of victoryLarger population, more resourcesNaval supremacyBritish underestimate Americans’ commitment to their political ideologyContinental army to be a fighting force and symbol of the republican causeDoes not go well for Americans for the first two years21
12 The French Alliance Effects of Saratoga (Oct 1777) Convinces France that colonists are serious enough to become formal alliesBritish sue for peace to prevent Franco-American alliance but it is too late25
15 The Loyalist DilemmaMore than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at war’s endLoyalists share basic ideology with PatriotsLoyalists see rebellion as endangering “life, liberty, and property”Loyalists treated poorly by both sidesBritish never fully trust LoyalistsPatriots seize property, imprison, execute some27
16 Winning the PeaceAmerican negotiators are John Jay, Ben Franklin, and John AdamsPeace Treaty of 1783U.S. independence recognizedU.S. gets all territory east of Mississippi River, between Canada and FloridaU.S. secures fishing rights in North AtlanticU.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists collect debts28
17 Preserving Independence The American Revolution begins construction of new form of governmentQuestion remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people?29
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