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Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850.

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1 Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,

2 Europe after the Congress of Vienna Europe After the Congress of Vienna 1. The Treaty of Paris in 1814 resulted in a lenient peace for France. The monarchy was restored when Louis XVIII ( ) ascended the throne. France was permitted to retain some of the territories in western Germany and parts of the Austrian Netherlands that it had captured by Although Poland was reconstituted out of the Duchy of Warsaw, Prussia and Austria were permitted to keep some Polish territory (see Acetate 57, Map 18.2). Thus, the new Polish kingdom was only three-quarters the size of the previous Duchy of Warsaw. The crown was to be worn by the Russian tsar who would govern foreign policy. To compensate Prussia for the loss of some of its Polish lands, two-fifths of Saxony and the kingdom of Westphalia were conceded as well as the left bank of the Rhine. 3. The Austrian Netherlands was handed over to Holland to create a united Netherlands. In return, Austria received the northern Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. These would give Austria interests in the course of Italian affairs. The marriage in the Netherlands, however, was not a good one since the two areas differed in culture, language, and religion. Likewise, there would be future resentment in Italy over Austrian interference. 4. In Italy, the Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia was extended to the border with Switzerland. 5. Switzerland became a perpetually neutral state. 6. The Confederation of the Rhine created by Napoleon was replaced by the German Confederation. It was composed of thirty-nine independent German states including parts of Prussia and the Austrian Empire. The presence of both states would lead to future conflicts over control of the confederation. 7. Effectively, a belt had been placed around France to contain it from any future aggression: the Netherlands in the north and the German Confederation, Switzerland, and Piedmont in the east. Moreover, Prussia had received considerable territory on France's eastern frontier to deter any French aggression from that quarter. Questions: 1. How was Europe reorganized after the Napoleonic Wars? 2. What was the rationale behind the restructuring of Europe at the Congress of Vienna? 3. What were the potential problems created by the "new Europe" constructed at the Congress of Vienna? Europe After the Congress of Vienna 1. The Treaty of Paris in 1814 resulted in a lenient peace for France. The monarchy was restored when Louis XVIII ( ) ascended the throne. France was permitted to retain some of the territories in western Germany and parts of the Austrian Netherlands that it had captured by Although Poland was reconstituted out of the Duchy of Warsaw, Prussia and Austria were permitted to keep some Polish territory (see Acetate 57, Map 18.2). Thus, the new Polish kingdom was only three-quarters the size of the previous Duchy of Warsaw. The crown was to be worn by the Russian tsar who would govern foreign policy. To compensate Prussia for the loss of some of its Polish lands, two-fifths of Saxony and the kingdom of Westphalia were conceded as well as the left bank of the Rhine. 3. The Austrian Netherlands was handed over to Holland to create a united Netherlands. In return, Austria received the northern Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. These would give Austria interests in the course of Italian affairs. The marriage in the Netherlands, however, was not a good one since the two areas differed in culture, language, and religion. Likewise, there would be future resentment in Italy over Austrian interference. 4. In Italy, the Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia was extended to the border with Switzerland. 5. Switzerland became a perpetually neutral state. 6. The Confederation of the Rhine created by Napoleon was replaced by the German Confederation. It was composed of thirty-nine independent German states including parts of Prussia and the Austrian Empire. The presence of both states would lead to future conflicts over control of the confederation. 7. Effectively, a belt had been placed around France to contain it from any future aggression: the Netherlands in the north and the German Confederation, Switzerland, and Piedmont in the east. Moreover, Prussia had received considerable territory on France's eastern frontier to deter any French aggression from that quarter. Questions: 1. How was Europe reorganized after the Napoleonic Wars? 2. What was the rationale behind the restructuring of Europe at the Congress of Vienna? 3. What were the potential problems created by the "new Europe" constructed at the Congress of Vienna?

3 The Conservative Order, The Peace Settlement, Vienna  Restoration of Louis XVIII of France  Viscount Castlereagh of Britain, Prince Talleyrand of France, Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria  Principle of Legitimacy  Balance of political and military power  Poland  Containment of France

4 The Ideology of Conservatism  Edmund Burke ( ), Reflections on the Revolution in France  Society is a contract  Joseph de Maistre ( )  Monarchy divinely sanctioned, guarantees order Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe  Four congresses,  Outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy  Intervention

5 Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 1. When Napoleon deposed the Spanish king in 1808, placing his brother Joseph on the throne, some colonial leaders cited ancient Spanish law to declare that the removal justified the shift of sovereignty back to the people. Increasingly, authority was seized to hold in trust until the true king, Ferdinand VII, could be restored to power. Radicals, however, regarded the conditions as an opportunity to throw off the authority of Spain. Under the leadership of Simón Bolivar in the north, the territories of Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia were freed from Spanish control between 1810 and In the south, José de San Martin, operating from already independent Argentina, freed Chile in Under Bolivar, Gran Columbia (Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador) was created for the purpose of establishing a single powerful state in South America. It did not work and by 1830 both Venezuela and Ecuador had fallen away. 2. With the French approaching Lisbon, the British spirited away King João VI in 1808 to the Portuguese colony of Brazil. When João was summoned back to Portugal after the war, he left behind his son Pedro who took the lead as the sentiment for independence developed. When Brazil declared independence in 1822, Pedro I ( ) was crowned emperor. As discontent over his rule increased, Pedro was deposed in He was replaced by his five year old son Pedro II who would rule Brazil after a series of regencies until overthrown in Radicals seized the opportunity for independence in Buenos Aires in 1810 and by 1816 the city and the outlying provinces had formed the United Provinces of the River Plate, the basis for the Argentine state. After a struggle with Brazil over adjoining territory in the northeast, the state of Uruguay was created in 1828 as a buffer. 4. Mexico became independent in 1821 following a conservative rebellion that was driven by fears of the consequences of a liberal revolution occurring in Spain. Like Brazil, Mexico established a monarchy in 1822 but it collapsed in Brought into the newly independent Mexico was central America. They separated themselves in 1823 as the United Provinces of Central America. The United Provinces disintegrated in 1838 into five separate states. 5. In 1791 during the French Revolution the slaves in Haiti rebelled against their masters. Napoleon sent troops in 1799 to restore colonial order but weakened by disease, the French army was defeated. On January 1, 1804, the colony was proclaimed independent. Off and on, the Haitians controlled the whole island until 1844 when the Dominican Republic won its independence. 6. In 1823 President James Monroe warned the Europeans against any attempts to regain their former colonies in the Americas. Question: 1. Why would it be important that Latin America remain independent? Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 1. When Napoleon deposed the Spanish king in 1808, placing his brother Joseph on the throne, some colonial leaders cited ancient Spanish law to declare that the removal justified the shift of sovereignty back to the people. Increasingly, authority was seized to hold in trust until the true king, Ferdinand VII, could be restored to power. Radicals, however, regarded the conditions as an opportunity to throw off the authority of Spain. Under the leadership of Simón Bolivar in the north, the territories of Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia were freed from Spanish control between 1810 and In the south, José de San Martin, operating from already independent Argentina, freed Chile in Under Bolivar, Gran Columbia (Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador) was created for the purpose of establishing a single powerful state in South America. It did not work and by 1830 both Venezuela and Ecuador had fallen away. 2. With the French approaching Lisbon, the British spirited away King João VI in 1808 to the Portuguese colony of Brazil. When João was summoned back to Portugal after the war, he left behind his son Pedro who took the lead as the sentiment for independence developed. When Brazil declared independence in 1822, Pedro I ( ) was crowned emperor. As discontent over his rule increased, Pedro was deposed in He was replaced by his five year old son Pedro II who would rule Brazil after a series of regencies until overthrown in Radicals seized the opportunity for independence in Buenos Aires in 1810 and by 1816 the city and the outlying provinces had formed the United Provinces of the River Plate, the basis for the Argentine state. After a struggle with Brazil over adjoining territory in the northeast, the state of Uruguay was created in 1828 as a buffer. 4. Mexico became independent in 1821 following a conservative rebellion that was driven by fears of the consequences of a liberal revolution occurring in Spain. Like Brazil, Mexico established a monarchy in 1822 but it collapsed in Brought into the newly independent Mexico was central America. They separated themselves in 1823 as the United Provinces of Central America. The United Provinces disintegrated in 1838 into five separate states. 5. In 1791 during the French Revolution the slaves in Haiti rebelled against their masters. Napoleon sent troops in 1799 to restore colonial order but weakened by disease, the French army was defeated. On January 1, 1804, the colony was proclaimed independent. Off and on, the Haitians controlled the whole island until 1844 when the Dominican Republic won its independence. 6. In 1823 President James Monroe warned the Europeans against any attempts to regain their former colonies in the Americas. Question: 1. Why would it be important that Latin America remain independent?

6  Revolt in Latin America  Simón Bolivar ( )  José de San Martín ( )  Monroe Doctrine, 1823  The Greek Revolt ( )  Treaty of Adrianople, 1829 Conservative Domination: The European States  Great Britain: Rule of the Tories  Peterloo Massacre, 1819  Minor reforms  Restoration of France  Moderation of Louis XVIII,  Charles X,

7  Intervention in the Italian States and Spain  Repression in Central Europe  38 sovereign states  Liberal and national movements in the German states  Burschenschaften movement, student societies,  Austrian stagnation  Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars  Alexander I,  Speransky reforms  Decemberist Revolt, 1825  Nicholas I,

8 The Distribution of Languages in Nineteenth-Century Europe 1. One of the consequences of the wars of Napoleon was the engendering of a nationalistic spirit in most of the territories touched by the French. 2. There are a number of factors in nationalism: institutions, traditions, customs, and language. Of these, language served as perhaps the most important element since it is the tool through which the other elements are communicated. This linguistic map illustrates the spread of population and culture. It also demonstrates how the languages of Europe are interconnected. The map clearly indicates that the Latin root language groups correspond closely to the Western Roman Empire. Laying outside this empire were the Germanic tribes, little affected by the Latin language but influenced by the Roman institutions as they overran the northern regions of the empire. The Slavic root languages relate to the successful migration of those people south and west and their borrowing of the cultures they encountered. 3. Nationalists of the nineteenth century Europe began asserting that it was possible to identify distinct nations based on shared characteristics, especially language. 4. Nationalists advocated the union of all those people with the shared national characteristics into self-governing nation-states independent from foreign rule. Questions: 1. What were the objectives of European nationalists? 2. How can language serve as a means to generate and unify a nationalistic spirit? The Distribution of Languages in Nineteenth-Century Europe 1. One of the consequences of the wars of Napoleon was the engendering of a nationalistic spirit in most of the territories touched by the French. 2. There are a number of factors in nationalism: institutions, traditions, customs, and language. Of these, language served as perhaps the most important element since it is the tool through which the other elements are communicated. This linguistic map illustrates the spread of population and culture. It also demonstrates how the languages of Europe are interconnected. The map clearly indicates that the Latin root language groups correspond closely to the Western Roman Empire. Laying outside this empire were the Germanic tribes, little affected by the Latin language but influenced by the Roman institutions as they overran the northern regions of the empire. The Slavic root languages relate to the successful migration of those people south and west and their borrowing of the cultures they encountered. 3. Nationalists of the nineteenth century Europe began asserting that it was possible to identify distinct nations based on shared characteristics, especially language. 4. Nationalists advocated the union of all those people with the shared national characteristics into self-governing nation-states independent from foreign rule. Questions: 1. What were the objectives of European nationalists? 2. How can language serve as a means to generate and unify a nationalistic spirit?

9 Ideologies of Change Liberalism  Economic liberalism (classical economics)  Thomas Malthus ( ), Essay on the Principles of Population  Population growth  David Ricardo ( ), Principles of Political Economy  Wages  John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, On the Subjection of Women  Liberty of the individual  Women’s rights

10 Nationalism  Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs  Allied with liberalism Early Socialism  Henri de Saint-Simon ( )  Organize society in cooperative community  Charles Fourier ( )  Model communities, phalansteries  Robert Owen ( )  New Lanark, Scotland  Louis Blanc ( )  Social problems require government Assistance

11 European Revolts in the 1820s and 1830s 1. Liberal revolts in Spain and Italy in 1820 prompted a meeting of the Concert of Europe at Troppau in October. Under the guidance of Prince Metternich and Tsar Alexander I ( ) the right was established to intervene in nations in order to restore legitimate (monarchical) governments when faced with an internal (liberal) revolt. Although Britain did not agree, Austria in 1821 was authorized to send troops into Naples. The revolts here and in Sardinia were crushed. In 1823 France was sent into Spain to put down a liberal rebellion. Again order was restored. 2. The crumbling Ottoman Empire experienced in 1821 revolts in Moldavia, Wallachia, and Greece. Such events gave rise to fears that Russia would take advantage of the situation to move on the Balkans, especially Greece. Complicating the situation was Austria's own desire for land in the Balkans and the British and French interests in trading opportunities and the possibilities of establishing naval bases in the area. The Greek revolt against Turkish rule in 1821 generated much sympathy in Europe and in 1827 a combined British and French naval force defeated a large Turkish fleet. The following year Russia declared war on the Turks and invaded Moldavia and Wallachia (Romania). In 1829 The Treaty of Adrianople ended the Russo-Turkish War and gave Russia a protectorate over the provinces while allowing Russia, France, and Britain to determine the fate of Greece. In 1830 the powers declared Greece independent. 3. France fell into rebellion in 1830 when reactionary King Charles X ( ) revoked the Charter of This July Revolution resulted in the bourgeoisie moderates winning the appointment of Charles' moderately liberal cousin, Louis-Philippe ( ), as king. In addition, a relatively liberal constitution was enacted. 4. Nationalism played a role in the independence of the former Austrian Netherlands which had been annexed to the Dutch Republic as part of the 1815 settlement. The success of the July Revolution set off uprisings by liberals in the Netherlands. Austria and Russia were eager to help the Dutch but France opposed the intervention. Instead, the major powers created the independent, neutral state of Belgium in At Modena, Parma, and the Papal States in Italy the inspiration of the July Revolution led the secret societies to initiate revolts in 1830 against reactionary governments. The revolts collapsed, however, when Metternich sent in troops. 6. Poland had been granted a liberal constitution by Alexander I ( ) of Russia when it was recreated by the Congress of Vienna. Russian interference became increasingly burdensome, however, and a revolt broke out in By 1831 the rebellion was crushed. Questions: 1. Why was there concern about the growth of liberalism? 2. Why were England and France concerned about the continued weakening of the Ottoman Empire? European Revolts in the 1820s and 1830s 1. Liberal revolts in Spain and Italy in 1820 prompted a meeting of the Concert of Europe at Troppau in October. Under the guidance of Prince Metternich and Tsar Alexander I ( ) the right was established to intervene in nations in order to restore legitimate (monarchical) governments when faced with an internal (liberal) revolt. Although Britain did not agree, Austria in 1821 was authorized to send troops into Naples. The revolts here and in Sardinia were crushed. In 1823 France was sent into Spain to put down a liberal rebellion. Again order was restored. 2. The crumbling Ottoman Empire experienced in 1821 revolts in Moldavia, Wallachia, and Greece. Such events gave rise to fears that Russia would take advantage of the situation to move on the Balkans, especially Greece. Complicating the situation was Austria's own desire for land in the Balkans and the British and French interests in trading opportunities and the possibilities of establishing naval bases in the area. The Greek revolt against Turkish rule in 1821 generated much sympathy in Europe and in 1827 a combined British and French naval force defeated a large Turkish fleet. The following year Russia declared war on the Turks and invaded Moldavia and Wallachia (Romania). In 1829 The Treaty of Adrianople ended the Russo-Turkish War and gave Russia a protectorate over the provinces while allowing Russia, France, and Britain to determine the fate of Greece. In 1830 the powers declared Greece independent. 3. France fell into rebellion in 1830 when reactionary King Charles X ( ) revoked the Charter of This July Revolution resulted in the bourgeoisie moderates winning the appointment of Charles' moderately liberal cousin, Louis-Philippe ( ), as king. In addition, a relatively liberal constitution was enacted. 4. Nationalism played a role in the independence of the former Austrian Netherlands which had been annexed to the Dutch Republic as part of the 1815 settlement. The success of the July Revolution set off uprisings by liberals in the Netherlands. Austria and Russia were eager to help the Dutch but France opposed the intervention. Instead, the major powers created the independent, neutral state of Belgium in At Modena, Parma, and the Papal States in Italy the inspiration of the July Revolution led the secret societies to initiate revolts in 1830 against reactionary governments. The revolts collapsed, however, when Metternich sent in troops. 6. Poland had been granted a liberal constitution by Alexander I ( ) of Russia when it was recreated by the Congress of Vienna. Russian interference became increasingly burdensome, however, and a revolt broke out in By 1831 the rebellion was crushed. Questions: 1. Why was there concern about the growth of liberalism? 2. Why were England and France concerned about the continued weakening of the Ottoman Empire?

12  Women attracted to socialism  Flora Tristan ( )  Utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism Revolution and Reform, French Revolution, 1830  Charles X issues July Ordinances, July 26, 1830  Censorship of the press, dissolves Legislative assembly, reduced electorate  July Revolution  Louis-Philippe,  Favors the upper bourgeoisie  Party of Movement  Party of Resistance

13 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy Reform in Great Britain  Reform Act of 1832  Poor Law of 1834  Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846 Growth of the United States  Alexander Hamilton ( ), Federalist  Thomas Jefferson ( ), Republican  John Marshall ( )  Andrew Jackson ( ), Democracy

14 The Revolutions of The Revolutions of 1848 had their origin in France during the European industrial and agricultural depression of By the end of 1847 one- third of the workers in Paris were unemployed. When the government of King Louis-Philippe ( ) failed to make timely changes, a rebellion broke out which forced the king to abdicate in February After the provisional government closed some of the workshops another rebellion forced the creation of a new constitution, thereby establishing the Second French Republic. 2. The news of the revolt in Paris and the activities of the proletariat gave strength in Germany to both the handicraft workers who wrecked machines and factories and the peasants who burned and looted the homes of the nobility. Several German princes responded by offering liberal reforms including constitutions. This was the case in Baden, Wurttemberg, and Saxony. In Prussia, King Frederick William IV ( ) agreed in 1848 to establish a constitution and work for a united Germany after violence exploded in Berlin. A constituent assembly was formed but by early 1849 the king disbanded it, granting a conservative constitution and reasserting rule by divine right. Meanwhile, more than 800 self- appointed German delegates met in Frankfurt, the seat of the German Confederation, to write a federal constitution for a unified Germany. When the crown was offered Frederick William, he turned it down. 3. Nationalist problems in Austria centered on Hungary that had long agitated for national autonomy. Demonstrations broke out in Vienna, Prague, and Budapest in March Vienna fell under the control of radicals and workers who insisted on summoning a constituent assembly to produce a liberal constitution. Emperor Ferdinand I ( ) soon capitulated to the demands with the result that Hungary gained a high degree of autonomy. The radical nationalist under Lajos Kossuth also sought to create a unified, centralized Hungary. To the various minority groups of Czechs, Poles, Croats, Serbs, and Romanians this was unacceptable since they desired their own autonomy. In April 1848 Czech patriots won a separate Parliament for Bohemia. This gave fire to similar desires in Moravia (a Czech province), Galicia (predominantly Polish), Dalmatia (a mixed Slavic province), Croatia, and Transylvania (predominantly Rumanian). The Habsburg monarchy exploited the divergent demands and after crushing the revolutionaries in Vienna struck at Hungary in June 1849 with the aid of 140,000 troops from Russia. The Hungarian Revolution collapsed. 4. In June 1848 Czech nationalism in Bohemia came into conflict with the nationalism of the dominant Germans. The differing aspirations played into the hands of the Austrians who sought to reestablish their control. The Czech rebels in Prague were soon crushed. 5. The failures of in Italy led to a new direction under the guidance of Guiseppi Mazzini who sought both unification and the expulsion of the Austrians. In 1848 liberal rebellions spread north from Sicily. A republic was proclaimed in Venice and it attacked Austrian Lombardy but by 1849 both were back in Austrian hands. Generally, the Italian revolts had failed. Questions: 1. What were the origins of the Revolutions of 1848? 2. Why did the Revolutions of 1848 generally fail? The Revolutions of The Revolutions of 1848 had their origin in France during the European industrial and agricultural depression of By the end of 1847 one- third of the workers in Paris were unemployed. When the government of King Louis-Philippe ( ) failed to make timely changes, a rebellion broke out which forced the king to abdicate in February After the provisional government closed some of the workshops another rebellion forced the creation of a new constitution, thereby establishing the Second French Republic. 2. The news of the revolt in Paris and the activities of the proletariat gave strength in Germany to both the handicraft workers who wrecked machines and factories and the peasants who burned and looted the homes of the nobility. Several German princes responded by offering liberal reforms including constitutions. This was the case in Baden, Wurttemberg, and Saxony. In Prussia, King Frederick William IV ( ) agreed in 1848 to establish a constitution and work for a united Germany after violence exploded in Berlin. A constituent assembly was formed but by early 1849 the king disbanded it, granting a conservative constitution and reasserting rule by divine right. Meanwhile, more than 800 self- appointed German delegates met in Frankfurt, the seat of the German Confederation, to write a federal constitution for a unified Germany. When the crown was offered Frederick William, he turned it down. 3. Nationalist problems in Austria centered on Hungary that had long agitated for national autonomy. Demonstrations broke out in Vienna, Prague, and Budapest in March Vienna fell under the control of radicals and workers who insisted on summoning a constituent assembly to produce a liberal constitution. Emperor Ferdinand I ( ) soon capitulated to the demands with the result that Hungary gained a high degree of autonomy. The radical nationalist under Lajos Kossuth also sought to create a unified, centralized Hungary. To the various minority groups of Czechs, Poles, Croats, Serbs, and Romanians this was unacceptable since they desired their own autonomy. In April 1848 Czech patriots won a separate Parliament for Bohemia. This gave fire to similar desires in Moravia (a Czech province), Galicia (predominantly Polish), Dalmatia (a mixed Slavic province), Croatia, and Transylvania (predominantly Rumanian). The Habsburg monarchy exploited the divergent demands and after crushing the revolutionaries in Vienna struck at Hungary in June 1849 with the aid of 140,000 troops from Russia. The Hungarian Revolution collapsed. 4. In June 1848 Czech nationalism in Bohemia came into conflict with the nationalism of the dominant Germans. The differing aspirations played into the hands of the Austrians who sought to reestablish their control. The Czech rebels in Prague were soon crushed. 5. The failures of in Italy led to a new direction under the guidance of Guiseppi Mazzini who sought both unification and the expulsion of the Austrians. In 1848 liberal rebellions spread north from Sicily. A republic was proclaimed in Venice and it attacked Austrian Lombardy but by 1849 both were back in Austrian hands. Generally, the Italian revolts had failed. Questions: 1. What were the origins of the Revolutions of 1848? 2. Why did the Revolutions of 1848 generally fail?

15 Revolutions of 1848  French Revolution  Louis-Philippe fails to initiate reform  Abdication, February 24, 1848  Provisional government  National workshops  “June days”  Second Republic, November 4, 1848  Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte  Revolution in Central Europe  Agricultural depression  Revolt of handicraft workers  Frederick William IV ( )  Frankfurt Assembly

16  Austrian Empire  Louis Kossuth, Hungary  Francis Joseph I ( )  Revolts in the Italian States  Risorgimento (Resurgence) and Giuseppe Mazzini ( )  Failures of 1848  Divisions among the revolutionaries  Failure to extend universal suffrage  Divisions supporting self-government

17 The Emergence of an Ordered Society Development of New Police Forces  Luis-Maurice Debelleyme, Parisian serjents  Robert Peel, London “bobbies”  Berlin’s Schutzmannschaft  Poverty as a source of crime  Institutes Reform of Prisons  Auburn Prison  Walnut Street model

18 Culture in an Age of Reaction and Revolution: The Mood of Romanticism Characteristics of Romanticism  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( ), The Sorrows of the Young Werther  Thomas Carlyle ( )  Geist (spirit that makes people unique)  Gothic literature Romantic Poets and the Love of Nature  Percy Bysshe Shelley ( )  Lord Byron ( )  William Wordsworth ( )  Mechanistic materialism

19 Romanticism in Art and Music  Casper David Friedrich ( )  God and nature  Joseph Malford William Turner ( )  Moods of nature  Eugène Delacroix ( )  Passion for color  Ludwig van Beethoven ( )  Hector Berlioz ( )  Program music Revival of Religion  François-René de Chateaubriand ( )  Protestant evangelicalism and personal salvation


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