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Give Me Liberty! Norton Media Library An American History

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1 Give Me Liberty! Norton Media Library An American History
Chapter 17 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner

2 I. Agrarian revolt The farmers’ plight Generally
Falling agricultural prices Growing economic insecurity Regional variants In trans-Mississippi West: equipment debt In South: declining cotton prices Farmers Alliance Origins and spread: Texas; 1870s Strategies Initial cooperative approach; credit “exchanges” Turn to “subtreasury plan,” political engagement

3 I. Agrarian revolt (cont’d)
Advent of People’s (Populist) party Scope of following: “producing classes;” cotton & wheat belts Grassroots mobilization Guiding vision Commonwealth of small producers as fundamental to freedom (Jefferson) Restoration of democracy and economic opportunity Expansion of federal power Omaha platform (1892) Ignatius Donnelly (see quote, page 617) Proposals: direct election of senators, govt. control of currency, public financing for farmers, recognition of labor unions, and public ownership of railroads

4 I. Agrarian revolt (cont’d)
Populist coalition Interracial alliance Tom Watson (GA) Colored Farmers’ Alliance Involvement of women Mary Elizabeth Lease: “less corn, more hell” Support for women’s suffrage Electoral showing for 1892 Prospects for Populist-labor alliance Context Economic collapse of 1893 Resurgence of conflict between labor and capital Sharpening of government repression of labor

5 Map 67

6 Map 68

7 I. Agrarian revolt (cont’d)
Prospects for Populist-labor alliance Key episodes Miners strike at Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Coxey’s Army Pullman strike American Railway Union Attorney General Richard Olney Eugene V. Debs Populist appeals to industrial workers in 1894 Some success among miners Minimal success among urban workers; preference for Republicans

8 I. Agrarian revolt (cont’d)
Election of 1896 Campaign of William Jennings Bryan Joint support by Democrats and Populists Electrifying rhetoric (see quote, page 605) Themes “Free silver” Social Gospel overtones Vision of activist government National tour to rally farmers and workers Campaign of William McKinley Insistence on gold standard Massive financial support from big business (McKinley Tariff) National political machine; Mark Hanna

9 I. Agrarian revolt (cont’d)
Election of 1896 3. Outcome Sharp regional divide (see map) McKinley victory 4. Significance and legacy Emergence of modern campaign tactics Launching of Republican political dominance Fading of Populism The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

10 Map 69

11 II. The Segregated South
Redeemers in power Dismantling of Reconstruction programs Convict lease system Failures of the New South Limits of economic development Persistence of regional poverty Black life Rural Varied prospects around region Elusive quest for land

12 II. The Segregated South (cont’d)
Black life 2. Urban Network of community institutions The black middle class Racially exclusive labor markets Pockets of interracial unionism Kansas Exodus ( ) Mass migration of 50,000 blacks Benjamin “Pap” Singleton Kansas reality

13 II. The Segregated South (cont’d)
Decline of black politics Narrowing of political opportunity for black men Church, law, private business Shifting of political initiative for black women National Association of Colored Women Middle-class orientation Pursuit of equal rights and racial uplift Range of activities Disfranchisement Persistence of black voting following Reconstruction Readjuster movement in Virginia Mounting alarm over specter of biracial insurgency Systematic elimination of black vote; how? Justifications and motivations (see quote on pp )

14 II. The Segregated South (cont’d)
Disfranchisement 5. Effects Massive purging of blacks from voting rolls 1940: 3% of adult southern blacks were registered Widespread disfranchisement of poor whites as well Emergence of southern white demagogues Tom Watson’s moral collapse 6. The North’s blessing Senate Supreme Court

15 II. The Segregated South (cont’d)
Segregation Fluidity of race relations following Reconstruction Green light from Supreme Court for legal segregation Civil Rights Cases (1883) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “Separate but equal” doctrine Justice Harlan dissent Spread of segregation laws across South Unreality of “separate but equal” Segregation as component of overall white domination Social etiquette of segregation Effects on other “non-white” groups

16 II. The Segregated South (cont’d)
G. Rise of lynching (see table 17.1, page 615) Motivations Shocking brutality (Sam Hose, Newnan, GA) The “rape” myth Ida B. Wells’s antilynching crusade A distinctly American phenomenon H. Uses of historical Memory Civil War as “family quarrel” among white Americans Reconstruction as horrible time of “Negro rule” Erasure of blacks as historical actors

17 III. Contrasting notions of nationhood
New nativism Against “new immigrants” from southern and eastern Europe Depictions of “new immigrants” As lower “races” As threat to American Democracy Campaigns to curtail Immigration Restriction League Efforts to bar entry into United States State disfranchisement measures

18 III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (cont’d)
New nativism Against immigrants from China Congressional exclusion of Chinese women Congressional exclusion of all Chinese Passage in 1882 Renewal in 1892, 1902 Discrimination and violence against Chinese-Americans Uneven positions of Supreme court on rights of Chinese Yick Wo v. Hopkins United States v. Wong Kim Ark Fong Yue Ting Precedent for legal exclusion of other groups

19 III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (cont’d)
Booker T. Washington and the scaling back of black demands Background on Washington 1895 Atlanta address Washington approach Repudiation of claim to full equality Acceptance of segregation Emphasis on material self-help, individual advancement, alliance with white employers

20 III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (cont’d)
American Federation of Labor and the scaling back of labor’s outlook Rise of the AFL, Samuel Gompers AFL-Gompers approach Reproduction of broad reform vision, political engagement, direct confrontation with capital Emphasis on bargaining with employers over wages and conditions; “business unionism” Narrower ideal of labor solidarity Concentration on skilled labor sectors Exclusion of blacks, women, new immigrants

21 III. Contrasting notions of nationhood (cont’d)
Ambiguities of the “women’s era” Widening prospects for economic independence Expanding role in public life Growing network of women’s organizations, campaigns Women’s Christian Temperance Union Growing elitism of women’s suffrage movement Ethnic Racial

22 IV. Becoming a world power
The new imperialism Traditional empires Consolidation and expansion of imperial powers Cultural justifications for imperial domination Abstention of United States from scramble for empire before 1890s Continuing status as second-rate power Confinement of national expansion to North American continent Minimal record of overseas territorial acquisition Preference for expanded trade over colonial holdings Leading advocates

23 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
C. Emerging calls for American expansion Leading advocates Josiah Strong (Our Country) Alfred T. Mahan (The Influence of Sea Power Upon History) Themes Moral Global application of manifest destiny Uplift of “inferior races” Economic Expanded markets for American goods Protection of international trade Strategic Influence

24 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
Intervention in Hawaii American trade and military agreements Economic dominance of American sugar planters Over throw of Queen Liliuokalani (1893) Rise of assertive nationalism Contributing factors Depression-era quest for foreign markets Concern over economic and ethnic disunity Manifestations Rituals “Pledge of Allegiance” “Star-Spangled Banner” Flag Day Yellow journalism: Hearst and Pulitzer

25 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
Spanish-American War (The “splendid little war”) Background Long Cuban struggle for independence from Spain Renewal of struggle in 1895 Harsh Spanish response Growing American sympathy for Cuban cause Toward intervention Destruction of battleship Maine War fever, fanned by yellow press U.S. Declaration of war; Teller Amendment

26 Map 71

27 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
Spanish-American War 3. The war In Philippines Admiral George Dewey’s victory at Manila Bay Landing of American troops In Cuba and Puerto Rico Naval victory of Santiago Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders; legendary charge up San Juan Hill Swift defeat of Spain

28 Map 70

29 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
From liberator to imperial power Postwar attainment of overseas empire Varied arrangements Annexation of Hawaii (1898) Acquisition of Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam McKinley’s duty to “uplift and civilize” Qualified sovereignty for Cuba, Platt Amendment Value as outposts for U.S. naval and commercial power Open Door policy with China (1899) Initial welcome in former Spanish colonies for U.S. forces As agent of expanded trade and social order As agent of social reform and national self-rule

30 Map 72

31 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
From liberator to imperial power 4. Growing disenchantment in Philippines Founding of provisional government by Emilio Aguinaldo U.S. failure to recognize; insistence on retaining possession 5. Philippine war ( ) Bloodiness and brutality Controversy in United States (precursor to Vietnam?) Outcome 6. Legacy of poverty and inequality in American possessions

32 IV. Becoming a world power (cont’d)
Status of territorial peoples Kipling’s “white man’s burden” Limits on claims to American freedom Forakaer Act Insular Cases Divergent futures for American territories Hawaii (statehood) Philippines (independence) Guam (“unincorporated” territory) Puerto Rico (commonwealth, or insular territory) I. American debate over imperial expansion Opponents (Anti-Imperialist League): “republic or empire?” Proponents: “”benevolent” imperialism

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