CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS 1.Pacifists against war in general 2.Political objectors (German government wasn’t the enemy) 3.Religious objections Quakers Jehovah Witnesses 4.Combination
CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS Ypres and Somme vast casualties fewer volunteers conscription Conscious clause The right to refuse if it went against their beliefs Partial participators & absolutists No Conscription Fellowship Socialist Independent Labour Party & Quakers
"Compulsory service is, I believe, as distasteful to the nation as it is incompatible with the conditions of an Army like ours, which has such a large proportion of its units on foreign service. I hold moreover, that the man who voluntarily serves his country is more to be relied upon as a good fighting soldier than is he who is compelled to bear arms.” -Lord Roberts, British Commander in South Africa
MUTINY IN THE FRENCH ARMY April 17-June 30: ~250 mutinies Rarely refused to face the enemy Nivelle Offense of April 1917 many deaths Infantry regiments had enough 17 men from the 108 th Infantry Regiment abandoned their posts 12 sentenced to death Motivated by living conditions trenches Rumors conflict
STATISTICS FROM G. PEDRONCINI The French Army consisted of 112 Divisions and 68 were affected by mutiny. Of these 68, five were “profoundly affected”’ six were “very seriously affected”, 15 were “seriously affected”, 25 were affected by “repeated incidents” and 17 were affected by “one incident only”. A total 35,000 men were involved in mutiny. 1,381 were given a “heavy prison sentence” of five years or more hard labour. Twenty-three men were given life sentences. 1,492 were given lesser prison sentences, though some of these were suspended. 57 men were probably executed (7 immediately after sentence and possibly another 50 after they received no reprieve. There were 43 certain executions (including the seven summarily executed) and 14 “possibly” or “doubtfully”. Two more men were sentenced to death but one committed suicide and one escaped (Corporal Moulin who was known to be still alive after World War Two).
MUTINY IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY Russia was not prepared for war Tannenberg and the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes loss of two armies Poor conditions Awful death rate Food and munitions shortages Soviets propaganda to the war front encouraged mutiny Spread revolutionary ideas Many troops listened Tsar called loyal troops to put down March 1917 Revolution Few obeyed
1916 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Home front life was strained Militarism of industry Food shortages Rumors about tsarina Alexandra and Rasputin 1,700,000 military dead and 5,000,000 wounded = 'stupidity or treason’? Soviet leaders did not support defensive war ‘Without annexations or indemnities‘ no one would accept April 1917: anti-war radicals& Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin home from exile in Switzerland by German General Staff 30 million marks provoke disorder in Russia 1917 military coup Bolshevik rise to power
OTTOMAN EMPIRE BEFORE THE ARAB REVOLT Ottoman Empire had kept control over its multiple ethnic groups because it had allowed them their respective lifestyles of choice Directly before WWI Ottoman Empire had shrunk (to what is now Turkey, the Middle East, and the Arabian coastline) Pan-Turkic campaign 1908 Completion of Hejaz railway infuriation of Hashemite clan Anger among Arabs Arab secret nationalist societies
INTRO TO THE ARAB REVOLT VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0B2JikABjA8
ARAB REVOLT SPARKS Purpose: achieving independence for Arabs from ruling Ottoman Turks single unified Arab state The Hashemite cause seeks British support Prince Abdullah to Cairo – Lord Kitchener British reluctance and vague response at first Ottoman Empire joins WWI on side of the Central Powers and pose threat of British access to Suez Canal Great Britain becomes a prime supporter of Hashemite cause
ARAB REVOLT British ships begin to aid revolt by shipping weapons and funds to Arabia Sharif Hussein bin Ali tribal alliances; al-Fatat nationalist movement June 5 th, 1916 Arab Revolt begins – attack at Medina of Ottoman garrison (General Fakhri Pasha) June 10 th Sharif Hussein bin Ali makes public announcement of the revolt in Mecca
ARAB REVOLT Rebel clan attacks of ports along Red Sea Arab Regular Army ‘Lawrence of Arabia’ Leadership cooperation between the British and the Arabs October 1916 Attack of Hejaz railway Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) – General Sir Edmund Allenby
T.E. Lawrence recalls a Hejaz railway attack in which he set off an electric mine that exploded a locomotive: “We had a Lewis [machine gun] and flung bullets through the sides. So they hopped out and took cover behind the embankment, and shot at us between the wheels at 50 yards. Unfortunately for them, the Lewis covered the open stretch. The whole job took ten minutes, and they lost 70 killed, 30 wounded and 80 prisoner. I lost some baggage, and nearly myself. I’m not going to last out this game much longer: nerves going and temper wearing thin….This killing and killing of Turks is horrible.”
INFORMATIVE WEBSITE ON T.E. LAWRENCE http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/lawre nce.html
ARAB REVOLT Lawrence reconnaissance missions in Syria October 1917 EEF victory at the third Battle of Gaza (Beersheba) September 1918 Battle of Meggido (final offensive) ‘Race to Damascus’ Sykes-Picot Agreement
WORKS CITED August 1914, 'The People' Resisting the Call to Arms. N.p.: n.p., n.d. JPEG. Background to Quakers and Conscientious Objection in World War I & II. N.p.: n.p., n.d. PDF. "Conscientious Objectors." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. Consciousnesses Objectors. N.p.: n.p., n.d. JPEG. "Introduction to Northwest Antiwar History." Antiwar History: WWI. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. "Mutiny in the French Army." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. N.p., n.d. Web. "Russian and War." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. "UK Socialists and WW1." World Socialist Party (US). N.p., n.d. Web. "War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.
WORKS CITED WWI Russian Statistics. N.p.: n.p., n.d. JPEG. Browne, O'Brien. "Creating Chaos: Lawrence of Arabia and the 1916 Arab Revolt." History Net. Weider History Group, 10 Aug. 2010. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. http://www.historynet.com/ History Learning Site. HistoryLearningSite, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012.. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/conscientious_objectors.htm Kimball, Charles Scott. "A History of Russia - Chapter 3: Soviet Russia - 1917 to 1985." The Xenophile Historian. Charles Kimball, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/russia/ru03.html Kindig, Jessie. "Labor Radicalism and WWI." Antiwar and Radical History Project. U of Washington, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. http://depts.washington.edu/ "Map of Expansion and Decline of the Ottoman Empire." Naqshbandi. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://www.naqshbandi.org/ottomans/maps/ Ministry for Culture and Heritage. "The Arab Revolt, 1916-18 - Ottoman Empire." New Zealand History Outline. History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 30 Aug. 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012..http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/ottoman-empire/arab-revolt O’Brien Browne. T.E. Lawrence: The Enigmatic Lawrence of Arabia. Military History. October 2003.Military History. October 2003.