2The Byzantine Empire Preview Starting Points Map: Spread of ChristianityMain Idea / Reading FocusEmperors Rule in ConstantinopleFaces of History: Justinian and TheodoraByzantine CultureThe Empire Declines
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4The Byzantine Empire Main Idea Reading Focus The Byzantine Empire, once the eastern half of the Roman Empire, was held together for centuries by strong leaders, profitable trade, and the influence of Christianity.Reading FocusHow did Byzantine emperors rule their empire from Constantinople?What were some important features of Byzantine culture?What led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire?
5Emperors Rule in Constantinople Constantinople—Greek for “The City of Constantine”—became the capital of the roman Empire under Emperor Constantine I.Constantinople seat of Eastern Roman EmpireBecame known as Byzantine EmpireRemained capital of Eastern Empire long after Rome fellEven before fall of Rome, Constantinople larger, richer city than RomeA New RomeLocation on Bosporus Strait helped control trade between Asia, EuropeAlso helped guard city from attackSea protected city on two sidesHeavily fortified walls protected landward sideLocation
6Reclaiming Western Empire Claim to EmpireWestern part of empire still claimed by eastern emperorsByzantine emperor Justinian I wanted to restore original Roman EmpireMilitary ActionMilitary action needed to accomplish Justinian’s goalFirst had to reconquer North African territories taken by Germanic tribe, VandalsBelisarius533, Justinian sent ships, troops to northern AfricaTroops led by top general, BelisariusSuccessesBy 534, fleet had recaptured African region, absorbed back into Roman Empire535, Belisarius led troops to Italy to retake that region
7Rebellion at HomeJustinian, wife Theodora served as co-rulers of empireAt home, faced threat from rebelsMany resented Justinian’s efforts to reform empire’s administration532, opposition led to rebellion called Nika RevoltFacing ProblemsTwo factions led revolt: Greens representing lower classes, Blues upper classesConstantinople in flames, Justinian prepared to fleeTheodora stood firm, refused to flee, back down, convinced Justinian to do sameBelisarius attacked rioters, slaughtered them by thousandsRebellion Quelled
9Achievements Justinian’s Code Nika Revolt destroyed parts of ConstantinopleGave Justinian, Theodora chance to rebuilt city with new monumentsMost important new building, church, Hagia Sophia, “Holy Wisdom”Spectacular blend of domes, arches; building still standsJustinian’s CodeJustinian set up commission that codified, systematically arranged, empire’s existing laws, legal opinions into clear systemCorpus Juris Civilis had four parts; first part included all existing constitutions from time of Emperor HadrianCode later updated, expanded to include Justinian’s laws as well
10Changes after Justinian Justinian’s achievements many, but did not lastDied 565, left government nearly bankrupt from expenses of taking back empire’s territoryHad expanded empire beyond what government could effectively administerWestern provinces fell to migrating tribes after his deathReign of Heraclius began 610Heraclius defeated Persians on eastern borderSettled Croats, Serbs within Balkan frontiers to west to act as buffers against new invadersCroats, Serbs converted to Christianity, extending Byzantine influence into region
11What did Justinian accomplish during his reign? SummarizeWhat did Justinian accomplish during his reign?Answer(s): put down the Nika Revolt, built the Hagia Sophia, reformed Roman law
12Byzantine Culture The Role of the Emperor Changing Culture Two institutions central to Byzantine culture—emperor, ChristianityEmperor, priest-king, considered deputy of Jesus Christ on earth, his co-rulerEmperor responsible for both civil, religious lawChanging CultureExample of emperor’s influence reflected in empire’s changing culturePeople of Constantinople referred to selves as Roman, but Greek cultural influences grew strongerEnd to Roman TraditionsEmperor Heraclius brought official end to Roman traditionsMade Greek official language, replacing LatinReplaced old Roman imperial titles with Greek ones
13Religion and the Arts Stylized Art Architecture Christianity greatly influenced artistic life of ByzantinesArt, architecture, literature based on religious themesByzantine art often featured saints, figures from BibleMost art in form of mosaicsMosaics decorated floors, walls, ceilingsNature of Byzantine mosaics, painting changed over timeBecame more detailed, stylizedSymbols used for common themesExamples: hand above cross, hand of God; 12 lambs, Christian flock, community, on earthStylized ArtReligion force behind Byzantine architecture; churches built by placing round dome over square foundationRested dome on corner supports, not walls, as in Hagia SophiaInfluenced styles in Europe, AsiaArchitecture
14Religious ConflictsIn the 700s the use of art in churches deeply divided society. This religious controversy threatened the strength of both church and state. The controversy involved the use of icons—paintings or sculptures of sacred figures.Churches contained beautiful iconsSome Christians objected to their presence, believed use too close to non-Christian worship of idolsPeople called iconoclasts, “icon breaker”Icons and Controversy726, Emperor Leo III forbade use of icons, ordered destructionIconoclast movement unpopular with many in church hierarchySince few could read, clergy found sacred images useful for teachingIconoclast MovementReaction against iconoclasm raged on and off until 843 when a council settled the issue by accepting icons. The dispute played a crucial role in the growing divide between the emperor in Constantinople and the pope in Rome.
15The Church Splits Growing Divisions Church Governance Schism Over time, number of issues that divided eastern, western churches grewUse of Greek one difference; theological differences also emergedEastern church allowed clergy to marry, western church did notChurch GovernancePope in Rome, patriarchs in Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem were church leaders; emperor oversaw church law, did not govern churchByzantines did not accept pope as supreme authority over religious issuesSchism1054, differences became so large, schism, split, occurred between churchesChurch in east became Orthodox Church, west remained Roman CatholicLater hurt Byzantine Empire, could not rely on western help against invaders
16What led to the split between the eastern and western churches? SummarizeWhat led to the split between the eastern and western churches?Answer(s): theological differences, including use of icons; use of Greek; allowing members of the clergy to marry
17The Empire DeclinesAs far back as the reign of Heraclius, Muslims had threatened the empire. Over time, Islam, pressure from migrating tribes, and internal conflict and corruption brought about the Byzantine Empire’s fall.Byzantines constantly attacked on northern borders600s, provinces of Egypt, Syria fell to Muslim conquerorsLeo III stopped advancing Muslim forces 718, 740Invaders in EmpireConstantine V won victories against Bulgars; successors failed to maintain his gainsBy 800s, Byzantines had endured century of crisesCentury of CrisesMacedonian dynasty ruled 867 to 1056Emperors improved peasantry, created law schoolExtended Byzantine rule, Balkans, BulgarsEstablished Orthodox Christianity in southeastern EuropePeriod of Calm
18Internal Weaknesses Civilian Viewpoint Military Viewpoint Macedonian dynasty began to decline after about 150 yearsConflicts symptoms of divide within Byzantine societyConstantinople government composed of well-educated, cultured aristocratsSupported emperors who restrained military, used energies to make Constantinople center of culture, learningCivilian ViewpointFocus on culture came at a costMembers of military aristocracy saw things differentlyBased in provinces, more aware of encroaching danger than government in capitalSupported emperors who had been soldiers themselvesMilitary Viewpoint
19Final Decline New Enemies Byzantine Legacy Continuing strife between the military and the Constantinople government weakened the empire, making it vulnerable to challengers from the outside.Seljuk Turks conquering areas on empire’s borders1071, Turks defeated Byzantine army at Manzikert; permanently weakened Byzantines in eastern Asia MinorSame year, also lost last outposts in Italy, ending presence in westBy 1391, empire reduced to Constantinople, outlying districtsNew Enemies1453, Constantinople fell to Ottoman TurksTurks renamed city Istanbul; Hagia Sophia became mosqueOttomans had gained important seat of power, spread influence into Greece, BalkansByzantine legacy: preservation of ancient Greco-Roman heritage; buffer between Christian West, Muslim EastByzantine Legacy
20Identifying Cause and Effect What was the connection between the rise of Islam and the fall of the Byzantine Empire?Answer(s): possible answer—As Islam spread and gained followers, Muslim invaders threatened the Byzantines.