4Hellenistic Period 332BCE Alexander the Great conquers Palestine 323BCE Alexander diesDiadochi, Ptolemy in Egypt, Seleucus in SyriaBCE Ptolemaic RuleAllowed to continue as semiautonomous201BCE Seleucid conquest of PalestineJason High Priestbribes Antiochus IV for high priesthoodbuilds gymnasium in Jerusalem which becomes a polis – “Antioch”Menelaus High PriestConverts temple into pagan shrine, YHVH=Zeus=Baal ShaminMaccabean RevoltAntiochus IV decrees persecution164 Judah conquers Jerusalem and rededicates the Temple
6 Hasmonean Dynasy ____ _ _______________ __________|________ 1. Mattathias ben Johanan [ ? BCE] Hasmonean Dynasy______________________________|______________________________|Johanan Gaddi4. Simon Thassi [ruled BCE]2. Judah Maccabee [ ? BCE]Eleazar Avaron3. Jonathan Apphus [ruled BCE]________|________________Mattathias [ ?-134 BCE]Judah [ ?- 134 BCE]5. Johanan Hyrcanus [ruled BCE]________6. Aristobulus I (Judah) [ruled BCE]Antigonus (Matthew) [ ? BCE]7. Alexander Jannai (Jonathan) [ruled BCE]=8. Salome Alexandra [ruled BCE]________|10. Hyrcanus II (Jonathan) [ruled (d. 30) BCE]9. Aristobulus II (Judah) [ruled (d. 49) BCE]| |_______Alexandra [ ? - 28 BCE]Alexander [ ? - 49 BCE]11. Antigonus (Matthew) [ruled BCE]Aristobulus III [ ? - 35 BCE]| Mariamne [ ? - 29 BCE]12. Herod (the Great) [ruled 38-4 BCE]_____Aristobulus IV [ ca BCE]Alexander [ ca BCE]
7Judah the Maccabee 167-160 BCE Led the revolt against the Seleucids Purified the Temple in 164 BCE
8JonathanRuler BCEfirst Hasmonean to be High Priest in 153 BCE
9Simon Ethnarch and High Priest 142-135 BCE Is granted tax exemption from Demetrius IIRemoves Seleucid garrison in JerusalemGains total political independenceMurdered by his son-in-law together with two older sons
10John Hyrcanus Ethnarch and High Priest 134-104 BCE Forced the Idumeans to convert (including Antipater’s father, grandfather of Herod)Destroys Samaritan Temple in 128BCE
11Aristobulus I King and High Priest 104-103BCE First to call himself kingImprisons mother and three brothers. Kills another brother.Married to Salome Alexandra
12Alexander Yannai King and High Priest 103-76 BCE Married Salome Alexandra, his brother’s widowPracticed Sadduecean law and was pelted by Etrogim. Kills 6,000 Jews in retaliations.Killed 50,000 in civil war.Crucified 800 PhariseesAdvises his wife before dying to yield to the Pharisees!
13Salome Alexandra & Sons Salome is queen of Judea BCEHer two sons Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II fight over the crown. Both appeal for help from the Romans.Pompey imprisons Aristobulus II and makes Hyrcanus II high priest in 63BCE.Hyrcanus serves 63-40BCEAntignos serves 40-37BCEHerod marries Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus.
17Pompey Enters the Holy of Holies The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot into their Temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey: thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing.Tacitus Histories
18Josephus on PompeyNo small enormities were committed about the temple itself, which, in former ages, had been inaccessible, and seen by none; for Pompey went into it, and not a few of those that were with him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful for any other men to see but only for the high priests.There were in that temple the golden table, the holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a great quantity of spices; and besides these there were among the treasures two thousand talents of sacred money: yet did Pompey touch nothing of all this, on account of his regard to religion; and in this point also he acted in a manner that was worthy of his virtue.The next day he gave order to those that had the charge of the temple to cleanse it, and to bring what offerings the law required to God; and restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, both because he had been useful to him in other respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in his war against him.Antiquities 14.4
21Herod the Great Ruled 37BCE – 4 BCE He was a despot and a murderer, but he built nice buildings31BCE Earthquake in Palestine kills 30,000. Massive relief effort.Had ten wives. He executed Mariamme and three sons.Hated by Pharisees and SadduceesBegins Temple rebuilding in 20BCESadducees hated him because he displaced much of the aristocracy.
28Herod the Great Executioner 36BCE appointed Aristobulus III, his brother-in-law as high priest. Herod has him drowned soon after his inauguration.30BCE puts Hyrcanus II to death for plotting with the enemy.29BCE Puts his wife Mariamne on trial for adultery and executes her.28BCE Kills Alexandra his mother-in-law without trial.7BCE Accuses two sons by Mariamne of treason and executes them.4BCE Accuses his son Antipater III of plotting against his life and executes him.4BCE Has Judas and Matthias and their pupils burned alive after they took down the golden eagle Herod placed at the entrance to the Temple.The Emporer Augustus said: It is better to be Herod’s pig than his son.
30Pliny the Elder (23-79CE), Natural History V.15 On the west side of the Dead Sea, but out of range of the noxious exhalations of the coast, is the solitary tribe of the Essenes which is remarkable beyond all the other tribes of the whole world as it has no women and has renounced all sexual desire, has no money, and has only palm trees for company. Day by day the throng of refugees is recruited to an equal number by numerous accessions of persons tired of life and driven there by the waves of fortune to adopt their manner. Thus, through thousands of ages (incredible to relate) a race in which no one is born lives on forever: so prolific for their advantage is other men’s weariness of life! Lying below the Essenes was formerly the town of Engedi, second only to Jerusalem in the fertility of its land and in the groves of palm trees, but now like Jerusalem a heap of ashes, Next comes Masada, a fortress on a rock, itself also not far from the Dead Sea. This is the limit of Judea.
31Josephus, Antiquities XVIII, 18-22: The Doctrine of the Essenes Josephus provides the most expansive contemporary description of the Essenes. He presents them as an agricultural, virtuous people worthy of admiration for their pious, peaceful ways, their communal economic life, and celibacy.(18) The doctrine of the Essenes is that all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of the soul and believe that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for. (19) When they send what they have dedicated to God to the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more purification rituals of their own, because of which they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves. Yet their course of life is better than that of other men, and they entirely devote themselves to agricultural labor. (20) It also deserves our admiration how much they exceed all other men who claim to be virtuous, and indeed to such a degree as has never appeared among any other people, neither Greeks nor barbarians, no, not even briefly. But it has endured for so long among them and has never been interrupted since they adopted them from of old. This is demonstrated by that institution of theirs in which all things are held in common; so that a rich man enjoys no more of his own wealth than he who has nothing at all. There are about four thousand men that live in this way.(21)Neither do they marry wives nor are they desirous to keep servants, thinking that the latter tempts men to be unjust and the former opens the way to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. (22) They also appoint certain stewards to receive the incomes of their revenues and of the fruits of the ground, those who are good men and priests, who are to get their grain and their food ready for them.
32Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 297: The Pharisees and Sadducees on the Traditions of the Fathers The traditions of the fathers, or elders, mentioned by Josephus, are an important component of what the Rabbis later called oral law. The traditions were a hallmark of the Pharisaic approach to Torah and continued into Rabbinic tradition as it was later enshrined in the Mishnah.(297) …What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have passed on to the people a great many observances handed down by their fathers, which are not written down in the law of Moses. For this reason the Sadducees reject them and say that we are to consider to be obligatory only those observances which are in the written word, but need not observe those which are derived from the tradition of our forefathers.
33Comparing the Sects Freewill/Fate Afterlife Oral Law Population PhariseesSadduceesEssennes
34Who Wrote the Scrolls? People Living at Khirbet Qumran Essenes – Majority ViewSadducees – SchiffmanBrought from Jerusalem - Golb