3Study Guide QuestionsWhat Characterized the evolution of the Abolition Movement?What role would did women play in the reform movements that followed in the wake of the Industrial Revolution?What characterized the evolution of women’s reform?
4Reform Movement The Benevolent Empire Voluntary church-affiliated reform organizationsEastern elites and familiesImpose moral disciplineReligious/Christian Conversion would provide order among the lower classesThe influx of immigration, the creation of slums in the inner city, among all the other rapid socio-economicchanges, alarmed religious leaders and wealthy businessmen to who sought to impose moral discipline onAmericans, and particularly new immigrants and the working class. Eastern Elites created a network of voluntary church affiliated reformorganizations.A host of local societies targeted individual vices, their purpose was summed up by a Massachusetts group….these goals linked social and moral discipline appealing to both church goers concerned about godlessness and profit oriented businessmen eager to curb their workers unruly behavior.Goals of Early Reform:Andover South Parish Society for the Reformation of Morals“to discountenance [discourage] immorality, particularly Sabbath breaking, intemperance, and profanity, and to promote industry, order, piety and good morals”
5Women’s Role in Reform, 1800Phase I: Reform activities represented an extension of the domestic ideal promoted in the Cult of Domesticity“Social Mother” & Moral Suasion1797, the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children, New YorkEarly reform activities represented an extension of the domestic ideal promoted in the cult of domesticity. Assumptions about women’s unique moral qualities permitted and even encouraged them to assume the role of social mother by organizing on behalf of widows and orphans.1797…typified these early approaches to reform, the women in the society came from socially prominent families, motivated by religious charity and social duty they would visit the poor, dispense funds and set up programs, and decide which of the “socially weak by morally strong people who had suffered personal misfortune was worthy of help, and screed out the rest thought to be unworthy.
6Temperance Movement American Temperance Society Founded in Boston, 1826 by Upper-middle classBusinessmen used ideas to create a regimented labor forceIntemperance – the greatest sinCrime, poverty, insanity, broken familiesThe drive against the consumption of alcohol, had the greatest impact on the most people of any reform movement. For many evangelicals the self control to renounce alcohol became the key to creating a harmonious Christian society of self regulating citizens. The American Temperance society wanted to bring about a radical change in American attitudes toward alcohol and its role in social life.American consumption of alcohol had reached 7.1 gallons of pure alcohol per year per person ages 14 and over about 3x present day levels.Reformers financed a massive propaganda campaign and link it to an organization that could mobilize and energize thousands of people. Reformers denounced consumption as the largest sin in the landDuring the Economic Depression of Temperance made its way into the working class. Small businessmen and artisans carried temperance into working class districts. They insisted that workers could survive the depression if they stopped drinking and adopted the temperance ethic of frugality and self-help. Their wives organized auxiliary societies and pledged to enforce sobriety and economic restraint at home.Between 1830 and 1845 consumption dropped from 7.1 gallons/year/person to less than 2Temperance pledgePressured by his determined wife and pleading child, this reluctant tippler is about to submit to "moral suasion" and sign the pledge to abstain from alcohol. (Library of Congress)
7Women’s Reform, 1820’s Widened public role of women Reinforced cultural stereotypes of women as helpmates who deferred to malesMiddle class womenVoluntary female groupsMaternal associationsSponsored revivalsEstablished Sunday schoolsDistributed bibles and religious tractsThe revivalist call for moral action in the 1820’s inspired middle class women to join voluntary female groups
8Women’s Role in Reform, 1830s Challenge male prerogativesCrusade against prostitutionNew York Female Moral Reform SocietySarah Joseph Hale - Boston Aid SocietyRejected the benevolent tradition of distinguishing between the “respectable” and the “unworthy”low wages and substandard housing that trapped her poor clients in povertyBusinessmen exploited female laborAmerican Female Moral Reform SocietyCrusade against the sexual double standardBy the 1830’s women were challenging male prerogatives and moving beyond their status of moral persuasion-ists. They crusaded against prostitution, founded the New York Female Moral Reform Society – members identified male greed and licentiousness as the causes for the fallen state of women. They blamed businessmen for the low wages that forced some women to resort to prostitution and denounced lustful men for engaging in a regular crusade against our sex.Sarah Joseph Hale founded the Boston Aid Society in She rejected the benevolent tradition of distinguishing between the respectable and the unworthy. She discovered that her efforts to guide poor women to self-sufficiency flew in the face of the low wages and substandard housing that trapped her poor clients in poverty. She attacked male employers for exploiting the poor, “combinations of selfish men are formed to beat down the price of female labor.”In 1839, the attack on the sexual double standard became a national movement with the establishment of the American Moral Reform Society; female activists mounted a lobbying campaign that bypassed prominent men and reached out to a mass audience. This unprecedented political involvement enabled women to secure the first state laws criminalizing seduction and adultery in the 1840s.
9Prisons, Workhouses, Asylums 18th century belief that people could not be rehabilitated, conditions could not be changedReformers of the Jacksonian era believed peoples environments shaped their character and could be redeemedPenitentiariesMental hospitalsWorkhousesOrphanagesreformatoriesAmericans had depended on voluntary efforts to cope with crime, poverty and social deviance, reformers turned to public authorities to establish a host of new institutions, penitentiaries, mental hospitals, workhouses, orphanages, and reformatories to deal with social problems.Studies 1820’s documented increasing urban poverty, crime and teenage delinquencyReformersEstablished public educationProdded state legislatures to fundPenitentiaries for criminalsAsylums for the mentally illAlmshouses for the poorWhile conditions may have improved through these reform efforts, these institutions did little else by classify and segregate inmates, they failed to eliminate or check poverty, crime and vice, by mid-century reformers abandoned their environmental explanations for deviance, and were defining deviants and dependents as permanent misfits with ingrained character defects. Holding pens for outcasts of society
10School Reform Workingman’s Movement Eastern cities, 1820s Pushed for “equal republican education”Sought to guarantee that all citizens could achieve meaningful liberty and equalityFirst Board of Education, Massachusetts, 1837Wealthy property holders resistedRefused to pay taxes to support the education of working class childrenUtopian CommunitiesRejected private propertyRejected family life based on monogamous marriagesOffered communitarian lifeCommunities short livedNew forms of social and economic organization far to radical for most1837, Massachusetts legislature established nations first state board of educationConditions that led to this developmentIncreased economic inequalityImpoverished catholic Irish ImmigrantsEmergence of mass democracy based on universal white male suffrageNeed for state supported schools
11Abolition & Women’s rights Abolitionistsinsisted that slavery was THE great national sin and it mocked ideals of liberty and Christian morality.1840, Movement led by William Lloyd Garrison splitGarrison’s division supported women’s rightsFemale abolitionists organized a separate women’s rights movement.Abolition emerged from the same religious impulse that energized reform throughout the North. They insisted that slavery was the great national sin and it mocked ideals of liberty and Christian morality.Under early leadership of William Lloyd Garrison, the abolitionists attacked slaveholders and those whose moral apathy helped support slavery. After provoking a storm of protest in the North and South, the movement split in Garrison’s division supported women’s rights. Most abolitionists broke with him and founded their own anti-slavery organization. Female abolitionists organized a separate women’s rights movement.
12American Colonization Society, 1817 Founded by slave holding politicians from the upper south such as Henry Clay, James Madison and President James MonroeGradual emancipation followed by the removal of black people from America to AfricaGoal was to make America all free and all white.When slavery was expanding during the early 19th century, most whites were convinced that emancipation would lead to a race war or a debasement of their superior status through racial interbreeding. This fear long shielded slavery from attack.In 1817 anti-slavery reformers from the north and south founded the American Colonization Society. Slave holding politicians from the upper south such as Henry Clay, James Madison and President James Monroe were its leading organizers. They believed that gradual emancipation followed by the removal of black people from America to Africa was the only solution that white reformers could imagine for ridding the nation of slavery and avoiding a racial blood bath. Their goal was to make America all free and all white. In the 1820’s the society sent 1400 blacks to Liberia, west Africa
13Black AbolitionA black petition in 1817 states that banishment from America would “not only be cruel, but in direct violation of the principles which have been the boast of this republic.”1827 Freedom’s JournalDavid Walker, “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World,” 1829Rejected colonizationIndictment of white greed and hypocrisy“America is more our country, than it is the whites, we have enriched it with our blood and tears,” and he warned that “wo be to you if we have to obtain our freedom by fighting.”Free Africans bitterly attacked the assumption that free blacks were unfit to live as free citizens, most were native born and considered themselves Americans with every right to enjoy the republican liberty. A black petition in 1817 states that banishment from America would “not only be cruel, but in direct violation of the principles which have been the boast of this republic.”Free Africans founded some 50 abolitionist societies, offered refuge to fugitives, launched the first African American newspaper in 1827 “Freedom’s Journal” . David Walker who had moved from N Carolina to Massachusetts published his Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the Worlds in 1829 rejecting colonization and insisting that “America is more our country, than it is the whites, we have enriched it with our blood and tears,” and he warned that “wo be to you if we have to obtain our freedom by fighting.”
14Nat Turner’s Rebellion exploded in 1831 and gave rise to white abolitionists who rejected colonizationNat Turner, artist unknownAs if response to his call for revolutionary resistance, Nat Turner’s Rebellion exploded in Alarmed and inspired by the black militancy, a small group of anti-slavery whites abandoned illusions about colonization and embarked on the radically new approach for eradicating slavery. (Labor uprisings/movementsNo pictures of famed slave revolt leader Nat Turner are known to exist, but this nineteenth-century painting illustrates how one artist imagined the appearance of Turner and his fellow conspirators. White southerners lived in terror of scenes such as this and passed severe laws designed to prevent African Americans from ever having such meetings. (Granger Collection)
15American Anti-Slavery Society, 1833 Founded in 1833 by Black and White AbolitionistsWith financial backing spread the messages:Printed wordDocumented indictment of slaver,American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand WitnessesRalliesPaid lecturesChildren’s games and toysSermonsPublished sayings on posters, emblems, song sheets and candy wrappersWilliam Lloyd Garrison denounced slavery and African rights but lacked organizational and financial resources to extend his message beyond free black communities. To change public opinion abolitionists described slavery in terms of moral and physical degradation. By ,000 northerners belonged to the society. Most whites were unmoved and some violently opposed abolitionistsThe success of British abolitionists in 1833 when gradual, compensated emancipation was enacted in British West Indian colonies inspired white and black abolitionists to gather in Philadelphia in 1833 to found the American Anti-slavery society. With the backing of wealthy merchants and evangelical ministers anti-slavery spread to the west.
16Anti-slavery men Armed antislavery men with John Doy Though no one would deny that their cause was noble, many of the men who flocked to Kansas to resist the expansion of slavery were no less violent than their proslavery adversaries. This photograph, taken in 1859, shows a gang of armed antislavery men who had just broken an accomplice (John Doy, seated) out of jail in neighboring St. Joseph, Missouri. Like proslavery "Border Ruffians," many of these men also served in guerrilla bands during the Civil War and some went on to careers as famous outlaws after the war was over. (Kansas State Historical Society)
17Anti- Abolition Movement Mid 1830s anti-abolitionist mobs in the northdisrupted anti slavery meetingsbeat and stoned speakersdestroyed the printing pressburned homes of wealthy benefactorsvandalized free black movementsIn the southburned and censored anti-slavery literatureoffered rewards for capturing leading abolitionists to stand trial for inciting slave revoltstightened up slave codes and surveillance of free blacks.Democrats in congress passed a gag rule that automatically tabled anti-slavery petitionsIn the mid 1830s anti-abolitionist mobs in the north disrupted anti slavery meetings, beat and stones speakers, destroyed the printing press, burned homes of wealthy benefactors of the movement and vandalized free black movements. In the south people burned and censored anti-slavery literature, offered rewards for capturing leading abolitionists to stand trial for inciting slave revolts, tightened up slave codes and surveillance of free blacks. Democrats in congress passed a gag rule that automatically tabled anti-slavery petitionsGarrison helped found the New England Non-Resistant Society in dedicated to the belief that a complete moral regeneration based on renouncing force in all human relationships, was necessary if America were ever to live up to its Christian and republican ideals. They rejected all coercive authority, whether expressed in human bondage, clerical support of slavery, male dominance in patriarchal family and racial oppression of black people, police power of government. The logic of their stand as Christian Anarchists drove them to denounce all formal political activities and even the legitimacy of the union based on its pact with slave holders.
18Women’s Rights Movement Feminism grew out of abolitionismParallels between slaves & womenConsidered biologically inferiorDenied the voteDeprived of property or control of wages after marriageBarred from most occupations and advanced occupationsFeminism grew out of abolitionism because of the parallels many women drew between exploited lives of slaves and their own subordinate status in Northerners society. Considered biologically inferior they were denied the vote, deprived of property or control of wages after marriage and barred from most occupations and advanced occupations
19Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton called the First National Convention devoted to Women’s rights at Seneca Fall, New YorkElizabeth Cady Stanton and sons, 1848Elizabeth Cady Stanton posed in 1848 with two of her sons, Henry Jr., left, and Neil. Stanton, one of the organizers of the Seneca Falls Woman's Rights Convention, traveled widely and agitated for women's equality while raising five children. (Collection of Rhoda Jenkins
20Seneca Fall’s Convention, 1848 Seneca Fall’s Convention defined goals of women’s movement for the rest of the centuryDeclaration of Sentimentsfull female equalityidentified male patriarchy as the source of women’s oppressiondemanded the voteNew York’s Married Women’s Property Act of 1860established women’s legal rights to their own wage income and to sue fathers and husbands who tried to deprive them of their wages.The convention issued the declaration of sentiments that called for full female equality and identified male patriarchy as the source of women’s oppression and demanded the vote for women as a sacred and inalienable right of republican citizenship. It defined the goals of the women’s movement for the rest of the century. By states had granted women greater control over their property and wages. New York’s Married Women’s Property Act of 1860 established women’s legal rights to their own wage income and to sue fathers and husbands who tried to deprive them of their wages.Some of the benevolent Empires harshest critics came out of the populist revivals of the early 1800s, they considered the protestant reformers program a conspiracy of orthodox Calvinists from old line denominations to impose social and moral control on behalf of a religious and economic elite. The goal of the orthodox party warned the Universalist Christian Intelligencer was the power of the “governing nation.”Women’s growing public and political role was perceived by many men as a threat to their authorityMen attacked feminized evangelicalism for undermining their paternal authorityFound in scripture an affirmation of patriarchal powerMormonismSmith came from a New England farm family uprooted and impoverished by market speculations gone sour. He and his followers were alienated not only from what they saw as the religious and social anarchy around them.Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsRepresented the most enduring religious backlash of economically struggling men against the aggressive efforts of reforming middle-class evangelicalsEstablished by Joseph Smith in Upstate New York in 1830Provided a defense of communal beliefs centered on male authorityAssigned complete spiritual and secular authority to menOnly through subordination & obedience could women hope to gain salvation