Presentation on theme: "Revolt and Reform Abolition & Feminism 1820 -1840."— Presentation transcript:
Revolt and Reform Abolition & Feminism
Study Guide Identification’s Benevolent Empire Temperance Movement Social Mother Sarah Joseph Hale Working Man’s Movement Institutional Reforms Abolition William Lloyd Garrison American Colonization Society, 1817 American Anti Slavery Society, 1833 Black Abolition David Walker Nat Turner’s Rebellion, 1831 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Fall’s Convention, 1848 Declaration of Sentiments
Study Guide Questions What Characterized the evolution of the Abolition Movement? What role would did women play in the reform movements that followed in the wake of the Industrial Revolution? What characterized the evolution of women’s reform?
Reform Movement The Benevolent Empire – Voluntary church-affiliated reform organizations – Eastern elites and families – Impose moral discipline Religious/Christian Conversion would provide order among the lower classes
Women’s Role in Reform, 1800 Phase I: Reform activities represented an extension of the domestic ideal promoted in the Cult of Domesticity “Social Mother” & Moral Suasion 1797, the Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children, New York
Temperance Movement American Temperance Society – Founded in Boston, 1826 by Upper-middle class – Businessmen used ideas to create a regimented labor force Intemperance – the greatest sin – Crime, poverty, insanity, broken families
Women’s Reform, 1820’s Widened public role of women Reinforced cultural stereotypes of women as helpmates who deferred to males Middle class women Voluntary female groups Maternal associations Sponsored revivals Established Sunday schools Distributed bibles and religious tracts
Women’s Role in Reform, 1830s Challenge male prerogatives Crusade against prostitution – New York Female Moral Reform Society – Sarah Joseph Hale - Boston Aid Society » Rejected the benevolent tradition of distinguishing between the “respectable” and the “unworthy” » low wages and substandard housing that trapped her poor clients in poverty » Businessmen exploited female labor American Female Moral Reform Society – Crusade against the sexual double standard
Prisons, Workhouses, Asylums 18 th century belief that people could not be rehabilitated, conditions could not be changed Reformers of the Jacksonian era believed peoples environments shaped their character and could be redeemed – Penitentiaries – Mental hospitals – Workhouses – Orphanages – reformatories
School Reform Workingman’s Movement – Eastern cities, 1820s – Pushed for “equal republican education” Sought to guarantee that all citizens could achieve meaningful liberty and equality First Board of Education, Massachusetts, 1837 – Wealthy property holders resisted Refused to pay taxes to support the education of working class children
Abolition & Women’s rights Abolitionists – insisted that slavery was THE great national sin and it mocked ideals of liberty and Christian morality. 1840, Movement led by William Lloyd Garrison split – Garrison’s division supported women’s rights – Female abolitionists organized a separate women’s rights movement.
American Colonization Society, 1817 Founded by slave holding politicians from the upper south such as Henry Clay, James Madison and President James Monroe Gradual emancipation followed by the removal of black people from America to Africa – Goal was to make America all free and all white.
Black Abolition A black petition in 1817 states that banishment from America would “not only be cruel, but in direct violation of the principles which have been the boast of this republic.” 1827 Freedom’s Journal David Walker, “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World,” 1829 – Rejected colonization – Indictment of white greed and hypocrisy – “America is more our country, than it is the whites, we have enriched it with our blood and tears,” and he warned that “wo be to you if we have to obtain our freedom by fighting.”
Nat Turner’s Rebellion exploded in 1831 and gave rise to white abolitionists who rejected colonization
American Anti-Slavery Society, 1833 Founded in 1833 by Black and White Abolitionists With financial backing spread the messages: – Printed word Documented indictment of slaver, American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses – Rallies – Paid lectures – Children’s games and toys – Sermons – Published sayings on posters, emblems, song sheets and candy wrappers
Anti- Abolition Movement Mid 1830s anti-abolitionist mobs in the north – disrupted anti slavery meetings – beat and stoned speakers – destroyed the printing press – burned homes of wealthy benefactors – vandalized free black movements In the south – burned and censored anti-slavery literature – offered rewards for capturing leading abolitionists to stand trial for inciting slave revolts – tightened up slave codes and surveillance of free blacks. – Democrats in congress passed a gag rule that automatically tabled anti-slavery petitions
Women’s Rights Movement Feminism grew out of abolitionism Parallels between slaves & women – Considered biologically inferior – Denied the vote – Deprived of property or control of wages after marriage – Barred from most occupations and advanced occupations
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton called the First National Convention devoted to Women’s rights at Seneca Fall, New York
Seneca Fall’s Convention, 1848 Seneca Fall’s Convention defined goals of women’s movement for the rest of the century – Declaration of Sentiments – full female equality – identified male patriarchy as the source of women’s oppression – demanded the vote New York’s Married Women’s Property Act of 1860 – established women’s legal rights to their own wage income and to sue fathers and husbands who tried to deprive them of their wages.