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THE GREAT REVOLT LEADERSHIP INSTITUTIONS HISTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "THE GREAT REVOLT LEADERSHIP INSTITUTIONS HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE GREAT REVOLT LEADERSHIP INSTITUTIONS HISTORY

2 1930s: A CRITICAL PERIOD DRAMATIC GROWTH OF THE YISHUV THE GREAT REVOLT BY THE ARAB POPULATION TO END BRITISH RULE CONSOLIDATION OF LEADERSHIP ON BOTH SIDES ARAB DEFEAT AND JEWISH VICTORY SET THE STAGE FOR 1948

3 One standard argument COMPARES JEWISH AGENCY WITH THE ARAB HIGHER COMMITTEE BOTH PLAYED KEY INSTITUTIONAL ROLES SEEKS TO EXPLAIN THE YISHUV’S GREATER EFFECTIVENESS COMPARES SOCIO-ECONOMIC, DEMOGRAPHIC AND IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES

4 KEY POINTS YISHUV’S LEADERSHIP WAS “MODERN”: –IDEOLOGICAL, HIGHLY COORDINATED –URBAN AND REPRESENTATIVE –ACHIEVEMENT ARAB LEADERSHIP WAS “TRADITIONAL”: –FAMILIAL AND PERSONAL –URBAN BUT UNREPRESENTATIVE –ASCRIPTIVE

5 BUT… AL-HUSSEINI HAS NO JEWISH OPPOSITE NUMBER (I.E., BEN- GURION) JAE WAS NOT AS CRUCIAL AS THE HISTADRUT AL-HUSSEINI’S POLITICAL CAREER BEGINS IN NOT 1936 AHC AND JAE WRONG COMPARISONS

6 AND PALESTINIAN ARAB SOCIETY WAS A SOCIETY IGNORES CONFLICT FOR POWER INSIDE EACH COMMUNITY THE YISHUV WAS AN IDEOLOGICAL PROJECT THE YISHUV DID HAVE MORE EFFECTIVE INSTITUTIONS TO PREPARE FOR A CONFLICT OVER STATE-BUILIDNG

7 SUPREME MUSLIM COUNCIL WE KNOW LITTLE OF ITS ACTIVITIES WITH THE DISINTEGRATION OF SECULAR NATIONALISM, IT ASSUMED A LARGER ROLE HAD A SECURE FINANCIAL BASE PROPOSED PALESTINE AS AN ISLAMIC ISSUE USED FUNDS AND SHARIA COURTS TO BLOCK LAND PURCHASES

8 NATIONALIST ARAB PARTIES COMPETING WITH HAJJ AMIN ISTIQLAL (INDEPENDENCE) PARTY –COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE –CLOSER TIES TO ARAB STATES NATIONAL DEFENSE PARTY –ORGANIZED AROUND NASHASHIBIs –ARGUED FOR MODERATION AND COOPERATION WITH THE BRITISH

9 AND A PRO-HUSSEINI PARTY PALESTINE ARAB PARTY –FOUNDED IN MARCH 1935 –SOUGHT TO CREATE A WIDER BASE FOR HAJJ AMIN –CALLED FOR INDEPENDENCE AND ABOLITION OF THE MANDATE

10 Shaykh Izz al-Din Al-Qassam

11 AND RELIGIOUS COMPETITION SHAYKH IZZ AL-DIN AL-QASSAM FORMED THE YOUNG MEN’S MUSLIM ASSOCIATION PALESTINIANS KNEW OF SIMILAR ORGANIZATIONS IN EGYPT (MUSLIM BROTHERS) PREACHED DIRECT, ARMED ACTION AGAINST THE YISHUV AND THE MANDATORY AUTHORITIES.

12 Rhythms of violence TWO QUESTIONS: WHAT CAUSES VIOLENCE? WHAT IS THE POLITICAL CONTEXT OF VIOLENCE? POLITICAL LEADERS CAN PROVOKE, INSTENSIFY, OR RESTRICT VIOLENCE THEY CAN ALSO CHOOSE HOW TO PORTRAY IT

13 WHAT ABOUT 1929? PROXIMATE CAUSE WAS CONFLICT OVER PRAYING AT THE WESTERN WALL IN JERUSALEM JOCKEYING FOR INFLUENCE AND POLITICAL FREEDOM TO ACT AND RESTRICT THE OTHER SIDE AND TO EXTEND ONE’S OWN INFLUENCE IN ONE’S OWN SIDE

14 RESULTS OF 1929 CONFLICT INCREASED ESTRANGEMENT OF YISHUV AND ARAB SOCIETIES DESTRUCTION OF JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN HEBRON AND SAFAD REINFORCEMENT OF “SELF- RELIANCE” IN THE YISHUV SENSE OF DESPERATION IN ARAB SOCIETY

15 BRITISH POLITICAL RESPONSES SIR WALTER SHAW HEADS A COMMISSION THAT REPORTS IN MARCH 1930 SIR JOHN HOPE-SIMPSON UNDERTAKES A MISSION AND REPORTS IN OCTOBER 1930 THAT JEWISH IMMIGRATION CAUSES VIOLENCE

16 THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT ISSUES THE PASSFIELD WHITE PAPER IN OCTOBER 1930 CALLING FOR AN END TO JEWISH IMMIGRATION PM RAMSAY MACDONALD REVERSES THE WHITE PAPER IN FEBRUARY 1931

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18 EARLY 1930s DRAMATIC INCREASE IN JEWISH IMMIGRATION ECONOMIC DOWNTURN INTENSIFIED BY DROUGHT WIDESPREAD POLITICAL OPPOSITION TO IMPERIAL CONTROL IN SYRIA AND EGYPT

19 THE DEATH OF ‘IZZ AL-DIN AL- QASSAM THE “CEMENT BARREL” INCIDENT AL-QASSAM’S DECISION TO LAUNCH ARMED STRUGGLE IN NOVEMBER 1935 HIS DEATH IN LATE NOVEMBER “THE ARAB TEL HAI”?

20 1936 THAWRA APRIL 15, 1936 MURDER AND REPRISAL APRIL 17 RUMORS AND RIOTS APRIL 19 THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FORMED APRIL 21 THE GREAT REVOLT BEGINS APRIL 25 ARAB HIGHER COMMITTEE FORMED

21 DEMANDS END TO JEWISH IMMIGRATION END TO THE MANDATE FULL INDEPENDENCE MAJORITY RULE

22 INTERNAL CONFLICTS GENERATIONAL CONFLICT: SHABAB v. ESTABLISHED LEADERS CLASS CONFLICT: THE POOR AGAINST THE WEALTHY (AYAN) SOCIOLOGICAL CONFLICT: THE RURAL (FELLAHIN) AGAINST THE URBAN (EFFENDIYAH)

23 EffendisPeasants

24 GAINING CONTROL HAJJ AMIN WORKED TO GAIN CONTROL OVER THE REVOLT WHILE NOT OVERLY ANTAGONIZING THE BRITISH BRITISH BRING IN TROOP REINFORCEMENTS HAGANA SHIFTS FROM PASSIVE TO AGGRESSIVE DEFENSE

25 THE FIRST PROPOSAL FOR PARTITION LORD WILLIAM ROBERT PEEL LEADS AN INVESTIGATION THE PEEL REPORT IS PUBLISHED JULY 7, 1937 PROPOSAL TO PARTITION PALESTINE INCLUDES “TRANSFER” UNACCEPTABLE TO ARAB MAJORITY

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27 RENEWAL OF THE REVOLT SECOND PHASE BEGINS IN THE SUMMER OF 1937 LEADERSHIP IS UNCLEAR ATTACKS AGAINST BRITISH, YISHUV, AND INTERNECINE CONFLICT SCALE OF REVOLT GROWS SCALE OF REPRESSION GROWS

28 REPRESSION OF THE THAWRA LOSS OF LOCAL LEADERSHIP INCLUDING EXILE OF HAJJ AMIN INCREASE IN COERCIVE CAPACITY OF THE YISHUV (IRGUN BET+HAGANAH+PALMACH) DEGRADATION OF ARAB CAPACITY TO RESIST GROWING SENSE OF INTERCOMMUNAL WAR

29 ANOTHER PARTITION PROPOSAL SIR JOHN WOODHEAD ARRIVES IN APRIL 1938 FOR A NEW COMMISSION OF INQUIRY ISSUES A REPORT PROPOSING A NEW PARTITION SCHEME ACCOMPANIED BY A WHITE PAPER DISMISSING IT

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