Presentation on theme: "Unit I Historical and Social Perspectives…. Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC Professor Emeritus Department of Foundational and Graduate Studies in Education EDGC."— Presentation transcript:
Unit I Historical and Social Perspectives…. Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC Professor Emeritus Department of Foundational and Graduate Studies in Education EDGC 682 Counseling Issues in Sexuality
“Especially in regard to sexuality, our most personal and private sphere, each of us likes to believe that our experiences are unique and are an integral part of our personalities. Ultimately, however, we’re not as unique as we like to think. As human beings living at a particular time in American Society, we share deep as well as superficial characteristics. In sex, as in most areas of our lives, we agree, disagree and sometimes even agree to disagree. In a variety of ways, we express our sexuality and merge it with the rest of our lives.” From the Janus Report on Sexual Behavior By Samuel Janus and Cynthia Janus (1993)
Sexuality has long been a popular topic among Philosophers, Poets, Scientists, Religious Leaders, TV Producers, Emperors, Paupers and just about anyone or anything that is alive…. It is sex, along with air, food, and shelter that insures life will continue. Sex permeates every aspect of our lives and so it is the topic of this course.
Most of us grew up with some interesting but often conflicting ideas about sex….. We were told that it was somehow “dirty”….yet, at the same time, something so special that it should be “saved” so it could be shared with someone “special”…..???
The study of human sexuality is both popular and complex It is a significant way to understand many different aspects of human cultures, behaviors, and social interactions.
Although the phrase “Traditional Family Values” is often used to refer a family unit of a man and a woman along with their children, this is no longer the norm in contemporary U.S. society. It becomes increasingly difficult to define what typical family or typical family values might be.
Factors leading to changes in sexual attitudes include Advances in Medical Science Greater emphasis on individuality and personal freedom Changing codes of morality New attitudes toward men and women Greater amounts of leisure time New knowledge about sex Growing concern over AIDS
Emerging from the 19 th Century Earliest sex research had to rely on historical case studies One could not “ask” about sexual behavior without violating social standards of decorum. This time is often regarded as the Victorian period and the basis for many of the ideas and concepts arose from the writings of both Roman and Greek culture. Some examples from Roman culture will now be discussed…… Kelly (1994)
Emerging from the 19 th Century Early in the 19 th Century there were some historical studies published about sexuality in classical Greek and Roman times.
Sexuality in Roman Culture Sexuality in ancient Rome generally lacked the modern categories of “heterosexual” or “homosexual”. Instead, the differentiating characteristic was activity versus passivity, or penetrating versus penetrated, equivalent to modern English "top" and "bottom”. Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 2000-2-23
Sexuality in Roman Culture Sexuality in ancient Rome The most important quality was for men to be “active” and were responsible for “penetrating”….being passive or being penetrated was strongly discouraged…. Hallett & Skinner, 1997
Sexuality in Roman Culture Romans thought that men should be the active participant in all forms of sexual activity. Male passivity symbolized a loss of control, the most prized Roman virtue. It was socially and legally acceptable for Roman men to have sex with both female and male prostitutes as well as slaves, as long as the Roman man was the active partner. Laws such as the Lex Scantinia, Lex Iulia, and Lex Iulia de vi publica regulated against same-sex activities among free-born males, Lex Scantinia as well as special laws for the Roman military put capital punishments upon same-sex activities. A man who liked to be penetrated was called pathicus or cinaedus, roughly translated as “bottom” in modern sex terminology, and was considered to be weak and feminine. McGinn, 1991
Roman Medicine and Sexuality Hippocrates’ ideas laid the foundation for medical ideas about women for centuries onward, from the Romans to the Victorians. Source: On the Diseases of Virgins, a work in the Hippocratic Corpus. Disease title: The Virgins’ disease, or morbus virgineus. Symptoms: poor coloring, swelling, difficulty breathing, palpitations, headaches, and others, most significantly, cessation of menstruation. Etiology: This sickness is caused by the failure of a woman of appropriate age to marry. Extra blood cannot escape because the necessary opening is closed, and it fills the body, clogging it and making a woman ill. McGinn, 1991
Roman Medicine and Sexuality Hippocrates’ “On the Diseases of Virgins” Cure/Treatment: The woman is cured when the blood finds its outlet – that is when she marries and loses her virginity. Pregnancy is the cure. The idea that virgins succumb to this illness because their wombs are not being used for the purpose they were intended and it is this disuse that makes them ill supports the cultural values of Greek society, emphasizing the weakness of women and their narrow purpose. This, along with the many supposed illnesses that could befall virgins, encouraged them to marry and bear children. McGinn, 1991
Roman Concept of Adultery James C. Thompson, author and history teacher, states that “adultery in Rome, as elsewhere in the Ancient World, was defined as sexual activity between a married woman and a man not her husband. Adultery by a woman of lower class was not considered to be a significant problem while the same behavior by a woman of higher class would be considered far
Roman Concept of Adultery By Roman law criminal penalties were ordained for the adulterous female spouse and her lover. 1.Confiscation of one-half of the adulterer’s property and dowry. 2.At time the husband might be permitted to kill his wife if he caught her committing adultery. 3.He was required to divorce her. 4.The implementation of punishment would be the responsibility of the father or eldest male in the family. 5.Convicted women were forbidden to remarry. McGinn, 1991
Roman Concept of Concubinage By Roman law men were permitted to enter into certain illegal acts without criminal prosecution. This created a de facto state of polygamy. Roman law forbade marriage or cohabitation with a concubine while legally married….so….Emperor Augustus gave the first legal recognition of concubinage, defining it as cohabitation without marital status. McGinn, 1991
Roman Culture and Prostitution Prostitutes in ancient Rome were symbols of shame. Their were referred to as infames (translates to lacking in reputation). The fragmentary legal sources regarding prostitution are primarily found in Justinian’s Digest which was compiled in the early 6th century. It is attested that prostitutes were not allowed to speak on behalf of others in a court of law. Generally they were also forbidden to bring accusations against others. They were not permitted to stand for election and, in many instances, their bodies could have been beaten, mutilated, or violated with impunity. Hallett & Skinner, 1997
Brief History Sex Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890): translated the Kama Sutra This ancient Hindu text is believed to have been written between 400 BCE and 200 CE and represents the standard in human sexuality in Sanskrit literature.
Brief History of Sex St. Augustine Augustine of Hippo Ideal Christian life was one of celibacy 354-430
Brief History of Sex Karl Ulrichs argued that homosexual men had “female element” and that homosexual activity acceptable Proposed that homosexuality was congenital. Pioneer in gay rights movement. (1825-1895)
Brief History of Sex Alfred Binet: Motivated by the birth of his two daughters Binet wrote extensively in the field of childhood development and emphasized the importance of early childhood experience on later sexual expression. His writings included more than 200 books and articles. 1857-1911
Brief History Sex Oscar Wilde: Irish poet and playwrite who was prosecuted for “gross indecency with other men” and sentenced to two years at hard labour. His prosecution brought widespread attention to the issue of homosexuality. Following his release he moved to France where he died destitute at the age of 46. His life and death were the inspiration for research by others. 1854-1900
Brief History of Sex Research It is likely that the earliest knowledge was gained from watching animals
Brief History of Sex Research 400 B.C. Aristotle, “History of Animals, Parts of Animals, and Generation of Animals,” foundation of western sexology developed classification system: reproduction by sexual, asexual, and spontaneous generation During this period, believed male contributed the seed, the woman brought to fruition. Plato - wandering uterus causes hysteria in women Hippocrates and Galen: Wondering Womb
Brief History of Sex Research Andreas Vesalius Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) discounted wandering uterus theory female anatomy still misunderstood 1514-1564
Brief History of Sex Research William Harvey Although most remembered for his discovery of the human circulatory system he discovered the importance of female egg to reproduction by studying animals 1578-1657
Brief History of Sex Research Anton van Leeuwenhoek used early microscope to identify sperm as “seed” compared healthy/unhealthy men sperm survived longer in warm environment coined term: “spermatozoa” reasserted idea of male supremacy in reproduction 1632-1732
Brief History of Sex Research Eduard van Beneden: Belgian embryologist who established fertilization was the result of two half sets of chromosomes joining to form full set 1846-1910
Three significant pioneers who studied human sexuality in the nineteenth-century were : Richard Von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, and Henry Havelock Ellis. Their work established fundamental perspectives on sexuality that persisted well into the twentieth-century.
Richard Von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902) German born neurologist and psychiatrist who became a teacher and practitioner in Vienna.
Richard Von Krafft-Ebing Krafft-Ebing’s book, revised through 12 editions, became a widely circulated medical text that portrayed most forms of sexual behavior and arousal as being disgusting and pathological.
Richard Von Krafft-Ebing Sexual Deviation Groups 1.Sadism 2.Masochism 3.Fetishism and 4.Homosexuality Masturbation was presented as the cause of all deviations and his writings tainted most sexual behavior as sick and unnatural.
Richard Von Krafft-Ebing Much of his work has been criticized as being based on opinion and speculation rather than on empirical evidence. Krafft-Ebing’s writings influenced the medical and psychiatric professions for many years.
Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 A physician who is regarded today as the father of modern psychiatry. Much of his work focused on the psycho- sexual development of children and how it affected adult life and mental condition.
Sigmund Freud The Five Psycho-Sexual Stages 1.Oral 2.Anal 3.Phallic 4.Latency 5.Genital Erogenous Zone: An area of the body, typically rich in sensory nerve endings, that when touched provides a deep sense of pleasure.
Sigmund Freud Published in 1905 this work caused a firestorm of controversy for it portrayed the idea of infantile sexuality and attempted to demonstrate how adult sexual perversions were distortions of childhood sexual expressions.
Sigmund Freud Freud’s work led to increased interest in sex and sexuality. Although he regarded most forms of sexual variance as “perversions” and considered them to be a sign of immaturity, he did not brand them immoral, criminal or pathological. Because of his work, sexuality became a legitimate topic for study in medicine and psychology. Brecher, 1979
Henry Havelock Ellis 1859-1939 This English physician spent several decades studying all available information on human sexuality in the Western world and the sexual mores of other cultures. He studied the sex lives of his contemporaries and published his findings in seven volumes between 1896 and 1936.
Henry Havelock Ellis Dr. Ellis is perhaps most responsible for the sexual revolution since Victorian times. His work recognized that human beings exhibit great variety in their sexual inclinations and behaviors which are determined by cultural and social influences.
Henry Havelock Ellis Dr. Ellis noted that masturbation was a common practice in both males and females and that homosexuality and heterosexuality existed in degrees rather than being absolutes. He suggested that women could have as great a sexual desire as men and that orgasms were similar in men and women.
Henry Havelock Ellis The work of Ellis gave rise to the idea that many difficulties in achieving erection or orgasm were psychological rather than physical and that within the range of normal sexual expression there was remarkable variation.
Theodore van de Velde 1873-1937 In 1926 this Dutch gynecologist publishes the first edition of Ideal Marriage in which he described ways and means for achieving a satisfying sexual relationship within the context of marriage.
Theodore van de Velde Van de Velde’s book described coital positions, the use of oral sex in foreplay, and suggestions for dealing with sexual problems. While not the only “marriage manual” of the time it made the topic far more acceptable to discuss.
Robert Latou Dickinson 1861-1959 This researcher collected 5,200 case studies between 1882 and 1924 and published a pioneering work called A Thousand Marriages. His analysis documented the effect of repressive sexual attitudes of childhood on adult sexual functioning.
Robert Latou Dickinson This New York City gynecologist also studied the physiological responses of the clitoris, vagina, and cervix during sexual stimulation and orgasm. His work suggested that once a woman experienced the pleasure of a self-induced orgasm she was more likely to have an orgasm during intercourse. He recommended the use of electrical stimulators for women. Dickinson (1932)
Helena Wright A pioneer in the sexual liberation of women, this English gynecologist began her medical practice in London, during the 1920s. She found that most women of the time found no pleasure in sex but rather regarded it as a marital duty. In 1930 she published the first of her books, The Sex Factor in Marriage in which she instructed women how to experience pleasure from sex.
Alfred C. Kinsey 1894-1956 The outstanding sex researcher of the mid-century, this zoologist gradually moved into the field of human sexual behavior. By applying statistical analysis to human behavior instead of drawing conclusions based on observation his work made sex research far more legitimate and accepted.
Alfred C. Kinsey Kinsey realized that at the time there was little reliable information on human behavior and by 1949 he had collected detailed histories from more than 16,000 individuals. He founded and directed Indiana University’s Institute for Sex Research and it remains a major center for the scientific study of human sexual behavior and reproduction.
Masters and Johnson William H. Masters, 1915-2001 Virginia E. Johnson (1925-
Masters and Johnson Founders of the Masters and Johnson Institute in St. Louis, MO Work has focused on: a.The physiology of human sexual response, (n=694, 10,000 orgasms studied) b. The treatment of sexual dysfunction
Several surveys about sex conducted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s gained worldwide attention and brought new perspectives to female and male sexuality, childhood and adolescent sexuality, sexual orientation, knowledgability about sex, and the place of sex in relationships. Surveys of 70s-90s
1.Largest survey since the Kinsey report 25 years earlier. 2.Sample included 982 males and 1044 females. 3.Findings were reported by Morton Hunt in the book Sexual Behavior in the 1970s. 4.Survey with more than 1000 questions but not scientifically rigorous. 5.The patterns of sexual expression identified were similar enough with those in the Kinsey Report that the data are frequently cited and used for comparison. The Hunt Report (1975)
1.The Hite Report by Shere Hite became a national best seller and opened up several issues for debate and discussion.. 2.Sample included 3019 questionnaires completed by women (4% return rate) who were asked to comment on the level of satisfaction in their relationships. 3.Findings suggested a high level of dissatisfaction. 4.Survey conducted with 7239 men in 1981 provided new insights about male sexuality. 5.Women and Love (Hite, 1987) claims that most women are unhappy in their relationships and that 70% of the respondents had been involved in an affair. 6.Many methodological problems make this data highly suspect. The Hite Report (1976) Hite(1976, 1981, & 1987)
Ronald and Juliette Goldman (1982) interviewed 838 children in Australia, North America, England, and Sweden concerning what they thought about sex, their relationships and their sexuality education. They reported that North American children were the least well informed about sex- related facts and issues. Research on Childhood Sexuality
German researcher Ernest Borneman (1983) has conducted survey research on sexuality with children for more that 35 years. Much of this research has been longitudinal in nature and his findings are similar to those of Goldman in that there is little evidence to support the idea of a latency period in children. Latency Period: A stage of human development characterized, in Freudian Theory, by little interest or awareness of sexual feelings. Research on Childhood Sexuality
Alan Bell, Martin Weinberg, and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith (1981) of the Kinsey Institute published the most comprehensive study every conducted on homosexuality. Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women was based upon 979 interviews from a pool of 4639 gay males and lesbians from the San Francisco area. The results of that study are still regarded as crucial in our understanding of sexual orientation and its development. Other Surveys
Reinisch & Beasley (1990) from the Kinsey Institute examined the basic sexual knowledge of American and their sources of information while growing up. Eighteen questions about human sexuality were administered to a sample of 1974 women and men who were selected to represent the U.S. population. Although there have been criticisms about the questions used, 55% of the respondents failed the test, calling into question just how knowledgeable most Americans are. The most common sources of information were friends (42%), mothers (29%) and books (22%). Formalized sex education and fathers trailed other sources cited. Other Surveys
Much of the emphasis in contemporary research has been focused on the topic of HIV and AIDS. This international pandemic has rightfully captured the attention of researchers who continue to investigate how the sexual behavior of people contribute to the transmission of this disease. There are continuing national and world-wide surveys currently underway and these results are providing a new picture of sexual attitudes and behaviors. Now it’s time to share what you’ve discovered about the sexual behavior and beliefs of others around the world… The past 20 years
References Bell, A., Weinberg, M.S., & Hammersmith, S.K. (1981. Sexual Preference: Its development in men and women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Borneman, E. (1983). Progress in empirical research on childhood sexuality. SIECUS Report, 12(2), 1-5. Brecher, E.M. (1979). The sex researchers (rev.ed.). San Francisco: Specific. Dickinson. R.L., (1932). A thousand marriages. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Hallett, J.P. & Skinner, M.B. (1997). Review of Roman Sexualities: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Goldman, R. & Goldman, J. (1982). Children’s sexual thinking. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Hite, S. (1977). The Hite report. New York: Dell. Hite, S. (1981). The Hite report on male sexuality. New York: Knopf.
Hite, S. (1987). Women and love. New York: Knopf. Janus, S.S. & Janus, C.L. (1993). The Janus report on sexual behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Kelly, G.F. (1994). Sexuality today. Guilford, Connecticut: Dushkin Publishing. Masters, W.H. & Johnson, V.E. (1966). Human sexual response. Boston: Little, Brown. Masters, W.H. & Johnson, V.E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown. Masters, W.H. & Johnson, V.E. (1979). Homosexuality in perspective. Boston: Little, Brown. McGinn, T.A. (1991) Concubinage and the Lex Iulia on Adultery. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press Reinisch, J.M. & Beasley, M.L.S. (1990). The Kinsey new report on sex: What you must know to be sexually literate. New York: St. Martin’s. Williams, C.A. (1998). Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 10.16.