Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Important Information This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen.This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen. You are free to reuse this presentation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Important Information This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen.This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen. You are free to reuse this presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Important Information This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen.This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen. You are free to reuse this presentation provided that youYou are free to reuse this presentation provided that you –Not make any money from this presentation. –Give credit where credit is due.

2 Blindly Stumbling towards Technology Nirvana a presentation by Patrick Douglas Crispen

3 The Germ of an Idea John C. Dvorak’s article “The Evolution of Personal Computers”John C. Dvorak’s article “The Evolution of Personal Computers” PC Magazine, March 12, 2002 (2/19/02 on pcmag.com)PC Magazine, March 12, 2002 (2/19/02 on pcmag.com) Image courtesy Harry Walker Agency

4 12 Steps of PC Evolution 1.Word processing

5 12 Steps of PC Evolution 1.Word processing 2.Spreadsheets

6 12 Steps of PC Evolution 1.Word processing 2.Spreadsheets 3.Telecom and

7 12 Steps of PC Evolution 4.Desktop publishing

8 12 Steps of PC Evolution 4.Desktop publishing 5.Chat rooms

9 12 Steps of PC Evolution 4.Desktop publishing 5.Chat rooms 6.Games

10 12 Steps of PC Evolution 7.Photo editing

11 12 Steps of PC Evolution 7.Photo editing 8.Presentation graphics

12 12 Steps of PC Evolution 7.Photo editing 8.Presentation graphics 9.The World Wide Web / surfing

13 12 Steps of PC Evolution 10.Bootleg software and music

14 12 Steps of PC Evolution 10.Bootleg software and music 11.Porn Cover courtesy AOL Time Warner

15 12 Steps of PC Evolution 12.Mullet awareness Image courtesy mulletsgalore.com

16 Have schools gone through a similar evolution as well? Mullet awareness aside, what path have we been on?

17 Behind the Orange Curtain Henry Jay (Hank) BeckerHenry Jay (Hank) Becker CRITO at UCI: at UCI: “Expert” Wisdom about Computer Use in Schools“Expert” Wisdom about Computer Use in Schools Image courtesy UC Irvine

18 “Expert” Wisdom: 1982 Program computers using basic

19 “Expert” Wisdom: 1984 Thinking skills that will transfer – program in LOGO

20 “Expert” Wisdom: 1986 Individualize instruction in basic skills – Integrated Learning Systems Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

21 “Expert” Wisdom: 1988 Tools of the future workplace: word- processors, database programs, spreadsheets Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

22 “Expert” Wisdom: 1990 Integrate computer activities with the school curriculum Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

23 “Expert” Wisdom: 1992 Students need to be doing authentic work – producing products for real audiences: have them program hypertext, multimedia interactive presentations Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

24 “Expert” Wisdom: 1994 Not programming again! Link students with people around the world by Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

25 “Expert” Wisdom: 1996 The World Wide Web – the world’s biggest library. Finally research is fun. Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

26 “Expert” Wisdom: 1998 Learning is more than acquiring information. The Web is for students to publish their ideas and get feedback from a world-wide audience. Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

27 “Expert” Wisdom: 2000 It’s not technology … it’s schoolwide reform. Technology is a tool for getting there. Covers courtesy AOL Time Warner

28 What is the “expert” wisdom about computer use in schools in 2002?

29 “Expert” Wisdom: 2002 Mullet awareness! Image courtesy mulletsgalore.com

30 Confused Yet? Basic! LOGO! ILS! Workplace Tools! Change the curriculum! Hypertext! ! The Web!

31 Crispen’s 4 Forces Model Stolen from Larry Cuban’s “3 motives for technology use in school” (with an extra force added by me)Stolen from Larry Cuban’s “3 motives for technology use in school” (with an extra force added by me) –Workplace readiness –Neo-progressivism –Productivity –You already know force number 4.

32 Crispen’s 4 Forces at Work Workplace readinessWorkplace readiness Neo-progressivismNeo-progressivism ProductivityProductivity Mullet awarenessMullet awareness Image courtesy Hasbro

33 No matter where we go, Simon™ comes along with us. The four lights blink randomly, but it is the same four lights all the time (for now.)

34 Along with the outside forces – the “blinking lights” – there are also internal forces at work. All faculty go through a “technological evolution,” and understanding this evolution shows us the path ahead.

35 Discovery of the Evolutionary Path Teaching With Technology: Creating Student-Centered Classrooms by Judith Haymore Sandholtz, Cathy Ringstaff, and David C. DwyerTeaching With Technology: Creating Student-Centered Classrooms by Judith Haymore Sandholtz, Cathy Ringstaff, and David C. Dwyer I’ve “creatively acquired” what they wrote and added a bunch of my own observations.I’ve “creatively acquired” what they wrote and added a bunch of my own observations. Think of this as “Sandholtz PLUS”Think of this as “Sandholtz PLUS”

36 5 Stages of Instructional Evolution EntryEntry AdoptionAdoption AdaptationAdaptation AppropriationAppropriation InventionInvention

37 The Evolutionary Path, in Plain English “… [T]ext-based curriculum delivered in a lecture-recitation-seat work mode is first strengthened through the use of technology and then gradually replaced by far more dynamic learning experiences for students.”

38 Let’s take a look at all 5 stages Our first stop? Entry!

39 Stage 1: Entry Entry is seen by the faculty as either “Getting their feet wet” or “being thrown into the deep end.”Entry is seen by the faculty as either “Getting their feet wet” or “being thrown into the deep end.” In entry, the faculty’s focus is still on what they know – text-based tools like blackboards, textbooks, workbooks, ditto sheets, and overhead projectors.In entry, the faculty’s focus is still on what they know – text-based tools like blackboards, textbooks, workbooks, ditto sheets, and overhead projectors. These tools are used in combination to support lecture, recitation, and seat work.These tools are used in combination to support lecture, recitation, and seat work.

40 Entry Focus? Traditional transmission philosophyTraditional transmission philosophy Teachers describe and explain.Teachers describe and explain. Students learn.Students learn. Facts and correct answers (“educational bulimia”)Facts and correct answers (“educational bulimia”) “Sage on the stage”“Sage on the stage”

41 Entry Tools The hardware and the OS are the tools.The hardware and the OS are the tools. The faculty are concerned with learning technical mechanics – “Magic Key” computing.The faculty are concerned with learning technical mechanics – “Magic Key” computing. Image courtesy Dell

42 Problems Faculty Face During Entry Control and discipline – faculty terrified to let students use computers because of the possibility of too much “mousing around”Control and discipline – faculty terrified to let students use computers because of the possibility of too much “mousing around” Personal frustration that comes from making time-consuming mistakes in already crowded days (and no longer being an expert)Personal frustration that comes from making time-consuming mistakes in already crowded days (and no longer being an expert) LOTS of doubts and second thoughtsLOTS of doubts and second thoughts “Where does technology begin in education and where does it end?”“Where does technology begin in education and where does it end?”

43 Supporting Faculty “Entrants” Provide the faculty with the hardware, software, and basic training/support needed to get comfortable with the technology.Provide the faculty with the hardware, software, and basic training/support needed to get comfortable with the technology. Frequently remind the faculty that:Frequently remind the faculty that: –“The tools don’t teach. YOU do!” –“You aren’t alone.” –“It really does get better!”

44 Eventually, the faculty will stop asking “how do I use this” and start asking “how can I use this in the classroom?” When they do, they’re ready to “evolve.”

45 Evolutionary Stage 2: Adoption Onward and upward.

46 Stage 2: Adoption At the beginning of the adoption stage, faculty want to know:At the beginning of the adoption stage, faculty want to know: –How can I use technology in the classroom; and –How can I integrate technology into my daily lesson plans or syllabus? Many “adopters” respond by creating computer-based activities aimed primarily at teaching students how to use technology – and grading the students on how well they perform.Many “adopters” respond by creating computer-based activities aimed primarily at teaching students how to use technology – and grading the students on how well they perform. Technology for technology’s sakeTechnology for technology’s sake

47 Adoption Focus? Software and skills that support traditional pedagogySoftware and skills that support traditional pedagogy Faculty teaches students how to use technology: keyboarding, word processing, the Internet, etc.Faculty teaches students how to use technology: keyboarding, word processing, the Internet, etc. Faculty uses technology in direct instructionFaculty uses technology in direct instruction

48 Adoption Tools Faculty use Microsoft Word to create handouts and quizzes.Faculty use Microsoft Word to create handouts and quizzes. Faculty use Microsoft PowerPoint to create HORRIBLE presentations.Faculty use Microsoft PowerPoint to create HORRIBLE presentations.

49 Student Tech Use in Adoption If faculty in the adoption stage allow their students to use technology at all, the use is highly structured.If faculty in the adoption stage allow their students to use technology at all, the use is highly structured. –“Go to this Web page, type the following exactly, and then write the answer on your worksheet” –“Write a paper using Microsoft Word that meets these specific criteria, print it out, and hand it to me.” The students absolutely HATE this.The students absolutely HATE this.

50 Problems Faculty Face During Adoption Insecurity and lack of confidenceInsecurity and lack of confidence Adapting technology to existing learning objectivesAdapting technology to existing learning objectives Lots of wasted time looking for “plug and teach” softwareLots of wasted time looking for “plug and teach” software Control and disciplineControl and discipline –Faculty still want strict control of technology usage at first –Students given more responsibility as faculty gains expertise

51 Supporting “Adopters” Training, training, training (and support, support, support) to build confidenceTraining, training, training (and support, support, support) to build confidence Introduce communities of practice (and make sure your CoPs are more than buzzwords)Introduce communities of practice (and make sure your CoPs are more than buzzwords) Frequently remind the faculty that:Frequently remind the faculty that: –“The tools don’t teach. YOU do!” –“You aren’t alone.” –“If this is as far as you want to go, COWABUNGA!”

52 Eventually, the faculty will stop asking “how can I use this in the classroom” and start asking “how can I use this to teach?” When they do, they’re ready to “evolve” again.

53 5 Stages of Instructional Evolution EntryEntry AdoptionAdoption AdaptationAdaptation AppropriationAppropriation InventionInvention

54 From Entry to Adaptation In the entry stage (stage 1), there is a HUGE disconnect between technology and the curriculum.In the entry stage (stage 1), there is a HUGE disconnect between technology and the curriculum. In the adoption stage (stage 2), technology and the curriculum touch … barely. Technology becomes the curriculum (which is just plain silly).In the adoption stage (stage 2), technology and the curriculum touch … barely. Technology becomes the curriculum (which is just plain silly). In the adaptation stage (stage 3), technology is incorporated into the curriculum, enhancing it.In the adaptation stage (stage 3), technology is incorporated into the curriculum, enhancing it.

55 Stage 3: Adaptation In adaptation, new technology is thoroughly integrated into traditional classroom practice.In adaptation, new technology is thoroughly integrated into traditional classroom practice. Technology becomes a productivity tool – “more, better, faster.”Technology becomes a productivity tool – “more, better, faster.” Lecture, recitation, and seat work remains the dominant form of student tasks, but students use word processors, databases, graphics programs, etc % of the time.Lecture, recitation, and seat work remains the dominant form of student tasks, but students use word processors, databases, graphics programs, etc % of the time.

56 Adaptation Focus? The tools include word processors, presentation packages, graphics programs, the Internet, and so on.The tools include word processors, presentation packages, graphics programs, the Internet, and so on. The focus isn’t the tools, though, it is using those tools to do something.The focus isn’t the tools, though, it is using those tools to do something. Image Courtesy Fanning/Howey Associates

57 Notice the Evolution? Entry: “How do I use this?”Entry: “How do I use this?” Adoption: “How can I use this in the classroom?”Adoption: “How can I use this in the classroom?” Adaptation: “How can I use this to teach?”Adaptation: “How can I use this to teach?”

58 Adaptation Tools Adaptation tools include every software program and piece of hardware imaginable.Adaptation tools include every software program and piece of hardware imaginable. The InternetThe Internet WebCT or BlackboardWebCT or Blackboard Anything that enriches and enhances the learning experience.Anything that enriches and enhances the learning experience. Image Courtesy Fanning/Howey Associates

59 Student Tech Use in Adaptation Faculty trust the students more.Faculty trust the students more. Assignments are more self-directed:Assignments are more self-directed: –“Find some information about the causes of the recent Israeli/Palestinian conflict.” –“Let’s go on a WebQuest.” –“Write a paper about the pros and cons of a missile defense shield and then it to me.” Students are MUCH more engaged when they are involved in the educational process as a participant rather than as a recipient.Students are MUCH more engaged when they are involved in the educational process as a participant rather than as a recipient.

60 “Problems” Faculty Face During Adaptation STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY!STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY! “Productivity rut” – this is a LONG way to go (and a heck of a lot of work) just to increase productivity“Productivity rut” – this is a LONG way to go (and a heck of a lot of work) just to increase productivity Need for instructional sharingNeed for instructional sharing Continued need for emotional support and technical assistanceContinued need for emotional support and technical assistance

61 Supporting Faculty “Adapters” Train the faculty to use tool software (databases, graphics, Net-enabled stuff, communications, multimedia, and so on.)Train the faculty to use tool software (databases, graphics, Net-enabled stuff, communications, multimedia, and so on.) Have the CoPs discuss alternative pedagogies and institute instructional sharing – “best practices.”Have the CoPs discuss alternative pedagogies and institute instructional sharing – “best practices.” Frequently remind the faculty that:Frequently remind the faculty that: –“You matter, your work is important, and YOU ROCK! Thank you!” –“If this is as far as you want to go, COWABUNGA!” –MOST faculty are either adopters or adapters.

62 Eventually, the faculty will stop asking “how can I use this to teach” and start asking “how can I use this to teach better?” When they do, they’re ready to “evolve” again.

63 Evolutionary Stage 4: Appropriation Onward and inward.

64 Stage 4: Appropriation Appropriation is evidenced less by change in classroom practice and more by a change of personal attitude toward technology.Appropriation is evidenced less by change in classroom practice and more by a change of personal attitude toward technology. Faculty catch up and actually understand the stuff they were doing in adoption.Faculty catch up and actually understand the stuff they were doing in adoption. Confident, effortless computingConfident, effortless computing Faculty replace old habits with newFaculty replace old habits with new

65 Appropriation Focus? The focus is internal: “how can I use this to teach better?”The focus is internal: “how can I use this to teach better?” Professional useProfessional use This internal focus kicks the faculty out of the “productivity rut” they encounter in adaptation (stage 3).This internal focus kicks the faculty out of the “productivity rut” they encounter in adaptation (stage 3). Image Courtesy

66 Appropriation Tools On a metaphorical level, the tool of appropriation is a mirror.On a metaphorical level, the tool of appropriation is a mirror. The technology becomes transparent.The technology becomes transparent. The focus is now on you.The focus is now on you. Image Courtesy

67 Dark Night of the Soul Sandholtz et al gloss over the internal changes that take place during appropriation.Sandholtz et al gloss over the internal changes that take place during appropriation. But appropriation could be a “Dark Night.”But appropriation could be a “Dark Night.”

68 Problems Faculty Face During Appropriation What the faculty used to believe may no longer be true – the Emperor may indeed be naked.What the faculty used to believe may no longer be true – the Emperor may indeed be naked. Faculty in the appropriation stage are WAY ahead of the pack (to use a cycling analogy, adaptation is the peleton, appropriation is the breakaway)Faculty in the appropriation stage are WAY ahead of the pack (to use a cycling analogy, adaptation is the peleton, appropriation is the breakaway)

69 Supporting Faculty “Appropriators” Have the CoPs continue with instructional sharing – discuss instructional strategies, share ideas, and observe others in actionHave the CoPs continue with instructional sharing – discuss instructional strategies, share ideas, and observe others in action Encourage and support conference attendance and teacher presentationsEncourage and support conference attendance and teacher presentations Provide emotional support and encouragementProvide emotional support and encouragement

70 Eventually, the faculty will stop asking “how can I use this to teach better” and start asking the most important question of all: “how can I be a better teacher?” When they do, they’ve reached the final stage of evolution: Invention.

71 Stage 5: Invention Faculty create new goals and pedagogical understandings.Faculty create new goals and pedagogical understandings. Faculty experiment with new instructional patterns and new ways of communicating with students and peers:Faculty experiment with new instructional patterns and new ways of communicating with students and peers: –Interdisciplinary project- based instruction –Team-teaching –Individually paced instruction Image courtesy mulletsgalore.com

72 Invention Focus? The focus of invention is on teaching itself.The focus of invention is on teaching itself. ReflectionReflection Questioning old patternsQuestioning old patterns Formulating hypotheses about the causes behind the changes the faculty are seeing in their classroomsFormulating hypotheses about the causes behind the changes the faculty are seeing in their classrooms Michele Forman 2001 National Teacher of the Year

73 Invention Tools? In the invention stage, the tools are the faculty, the students, and the curriculum.In the invention stage, the tools are the faculty, the students, and the curriculum. Technology is completely transparent.Technology is completely transparent. Heck, technology has been transparent since the adaptation stage (stage 3)!Heck, technology has been transparent since the adaptation stage (stage 3)!

74 Problems Faculty Face During Invention It is lonely at the top.It is lonely at the top. Standards and accountability (but most inventors skirt this by inventing alternative modes of student assessment.)Standards and accountability (but most inventors skirt this by inventing alternative modes of student assessment.)

75 Supporting Faculty “Inventors” You don’t support them, they support you … and everyone else.You don’t support them, they support you … and everyone else. Encourage inventors to actively participate in the CoP and to mentor other teachers.Encourage inventors to actively participate in the CoP and to mentor other teachers. Encourage inventors to toot their own horn – publish, present, speak.Encourage inventors to toot their own horn – publish, present, speak.

76 At the beginning of this presentation, we looked at how schools have bounced all over the place when it comes to technology. But if you look closely, there really is an evolutionary pattern at work.

77 5 Stages of Instructional Evolution EntryEntry AdoptionAdoption AdaptationAdaptation AppropriationAppropriation InventionInvention (Sandholtz et al, 1997)

78 The Evolutionary Questions Entry: “How do I use this?”Entry: “How do I use this?” Adoption: “How can I use this in the classroom?”Adoption: “How can I use this in the classroom?” Adaptation: “How can I use this to teach?”Adaptation: “How can I use this to teach?” Appropriation: “How can I use this to teach better?”Appropriation: “How can I use this to teach better?” Invention: “How can I be a better teacher?”Invention: “How can I be a better teacher?”

79 Now that you see the evolutionary path, hopefully you’ll no longer blindly stumble towards technology nirvana … or at least you’ll stumble a little more purposefully.

80 For More Information Teaching With Technology : Creating Student-Centered Classrooms by Judith Haymore Sandholtz, Cathy Ringstaff, David C. DwyerTeaching With Technology : Creating Student-Centered Classrooms by Judith Haymore Sandholtz, Cathy Ringstaff, David C. Dwyer ISBN: ISBN: US$19.95 at Amazon.comUS$19.95 at Amazon.com

81 Fair Use Disclaimer This presentation was created following the Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia. Certain materials are included under the Fair Use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law. Further use of these materials and this presentation is restricted.

82 Blindly Stumbling towards Technology Nirvana a presentation by Patrick Douglas Crispen


Download ppt "Important Information This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen.This presentation was created by Patrick Crispen. You are free to reuse this presentation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google