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ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION, NIGERIA. ICT AND Economic Crime BY David Wodi Tukura, PhD Director, Policy, Planning & Strategy EFCC Paper presented.

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Presentation on theme: "ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION, NIGERIA. ICT AND Economic Crime BY David Wodi Tukura, PhD Director, Policy, Planning & Strategy EFCC Paper presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION, NIGERIA

2 ICT AND Economic Crime BY David Wodi Tukura, PhD Director, Policy, Planning & Strategy EFCC Paper presented at IPSON 22 nd October, 2013

3 OUTLINE OUR CONTEXT OUR STRATEGY TRENDS WAY FORWARD

4 OUR CONTEXT Introduction of modern technological tools to commit crimes started in the mid 80s with the entry of graduate criminals into Advance Fee Fraud schemes. Local flavor was added to the old ‘Spanish Prisoner’ scam Their sophistication, ingenuity, knowledge of official government procedures, current affairs, legal terminologies, good command of language etc. led to the proliferation of contract, fund transfer, crude oil, precious minerals and black money scams

5 OUR CONTEXT They introduced structure and shared roles for group members. The modern conmen were organized NITEL digital land & fax lines, CDMA mobile sets (Multilinks & Intercellular), wireless fax (Skyview-O & Acclaim) were the primary mode of communication with victims The old Microsoft 286, 384 and 486 PC systems came on board by the late 80s. NITEL fixed digital lines provided expensive access to the Internet

6 OUR CONTEXT Regular mailing of scam solicitation letters was replaced by e-mails. Internet provided anonymity, global reach, speed and cost effective communication Scammers honed their skills in Corel draw applications, Photoshop etc. and no longer required lithographic printing for scam documents Lagos (Island, Apapa, Festac, Ikeja, Isolo) was the Operational Locale – hosting groups from Benin, Enugu & Ibadan

7 OUR CONTEXT By early 2000s, Nigerian scammers have become a global phenomenon and economic threat making large profit with little risks and investment Our cyber criminals are however still low in technical sophistication and high in social engineering. Local cyber crimes are profit driven and mostly fraud related No serious intrusion attacks on Public Key Infrastructure has been recorded. We have not seen any local virus, trojan or botnet. We have also not yet come cross any genius cryptographer in Nigeria

8 OUR CONTEXT Our criminals enjoy underserved credit for using off the shelf voice simulators, key loggers, skimmers & embossers, anonymizers, spywares etc. Currently, mobile devices are the primary tools of technological crimes, while social media (face book, twitter, myspace, chat forums etc.) provide easy knowledge and target

9 OUR CONTEXT There are over 110 million active Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) & Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) wireless lines on an Internet capable 3.5 generation network Over 500, 000 broad band modems are currently being used for direct wireless Internet access

10 OUR CONTEXT YearUsersPopulation Percent Usage Source 2000200,000142,895,6000.1 %ITU 20065,000,000159,404,1373.1 %ITU 200923,982,200149,229,09016.1 %ITU 201145,039,711155,215,57326.5 %ITU

11 OUR CONTEXT Legal Framework: Section 6 (b) of the Economic & Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act (2004) gave teeth to our fight against cyber crime, computer credit card fraud etc. Sections 12 and 13 of the Advance Fee Fraud and other Fraud Offences Related Offences Act (2006) impose legal obligations on all telecommunication and Internet Service Providers, Internet cafes and other entities providing electronic communications and remote computing service Sections 84, 93 & 153 of the Evidence Act (2011) made adequate provisions for documents produced by computer, electronic signature, telegraphic & electronic messages

12 OUR STRATEGY Intelligence Disruption Public Education Enforcement Forensics

13 TRENDS

14 TRENDS

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17 CASE STUDY 1 -MIKE AMADI MIKE AMADI AKA NUHU RIBADU GRAHAM ROUSE COMPLAINED TO EFCC EFCC 2.5 MILLION DOLLARS CONTRACT SCAM WITH EFCC LOGO AND RIBADU’S NAME TO MR GRAHAM ROUSE LETTER PURPOTEDLY FROM NUHU RIBADU USES HIS GSM NO AS RIBADU’S OFFICIAL DIRECT LINE CREATED FAKE WEBSITE”WWW.EFCCNIGERIA.COM. WEBSITE REGISTERED WITH REDIFF,INDIA REGISTRANT OF DOMAIN IS PRINCE AMADI WITH A CALIFORNIAN ADDRESS OGBA,AGEGE UK AGENT PROVACATEAUR AT EFCC CYBERCRIME UNIT UNDER THE NAME OF FABIO FAJANO SUSPECT ARRESTED THROUGH HIS SCAM MAILS INCRIMINATING ITEMS RECOVERED FROM HIS ABODE AT OGBA. LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

18  MIKE AMADI CONVICTED TO 17 YEARS INPRISONMENT ON 25 TH MAY,2005.  FIRST CYBERCRIME CONVICTION IN NIGERIA LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

19 CASE STUDY 2-HARRY ODIAWA GEORGE BLICK VIRGINIA,USA $2.1 M,10,000GBP,195,000USD, 250,000USD,190,000USD, 350,000USD,177,000USD, 180,000USD,350,000USD,200,0 00USD,300000USD AND MOLDOVA WATCHES DR TUNDE ONI,DESMOND OKORO,MR SAYOR,MR ANDERSON HARRISON ODIAWA AKA ABU BELGORE OF FED MIN OF HEALTH CONTRACT REVIEW PANEL BANK ACCONTS IN CHINA,SINGAPOR E,SPAIN,CASH IN UK LAGO S MADRID,LONDON LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

20  ARRESTED BY EFCC OPERATIVES ON 6 TH AUGUST,2004.  TRACED THROUGH HIS EMAIL CORRESPONDENCES WITH MR BLICK.  HIS COHORTS IN LONDON AND SPAIN COULD NEITHER BE LOCATED NOR ARRESTED BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES THERE TO WHOM THE VICTIM INITIALLY REPOTED THE CASE.  HARRISON ODIAWA SENTENCED TO 310 YEARS INPRISONMENT ON 13 TH JANUARY 2006 AND TO PAY BACK THE MONEY LOST BY MR BLICK. LAW ENFORCEMENT SENSITIVE

21 CASE STUDY 3: ADEWALE NURUDDEEN CASE STUDY 3: ADEWALE NURUDDEEN ALE A 56 year old female Gold Coast resident met a certain ‘Benson Lawson’ purported to be a 57 year old British Civil Engineer working in Nigeria on an dating site The victim sent $47, 816 as medical fees to Nigeria for Benson said to be in coma Case was reported to EFCC in 2007 via the Queensland Police service The principal suspect was arrested through a controlled delivery of a FedEx package on in 2007. He was identified to be Adewale Nurudeen, a surveying and geo-informatics engineering University undergraduate

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23 The principal suspect was arrested and identified to be Adewale Nurudeen, a surveying and geo-informatics engineering University undergraduate Suspect was charged to the Lagos State High Court and was convicted to cumulative of 29 years imprisonment He was ordered to refund the money obtained and had so far repaid $5, 900 and N514, 212.10 Money was sent to the victim through the Australian High Commission, Nigeria

24 CASE STUDY 4:BIKE JOHN NIYE 28 year old Bike John Niye falsely represented himself as ‘Toby Encore’ to a 57 year old lady in Avon He met her on singlesnet.com Victim stuffed a blackberry phone and cash sum of $40, 020 in a teddy bear which was sent to the suspect in Lagos in May 2010 Suspect arrested in a controlled delivery operation and found to have earlier collected another $25, 000 from the same victim Suspect convicted to 17 years imprisonment by the Lagos State High Court

25 CASE STUDY 5: AKEEM ADEJUMO A 20 years old undergraduate in a Nigerian University Sent malicious code attached to a picture to a lady friend in the United States whom he meet on the Internet. Malicious code meant to steal important data e.g. credit card details etc. Malicious code infected and damaged all systems of the company- “WINSPY”

26 CASE STUDY 5:AKEEM ADEJUMO Suspect was arrested by EFCC operatives in 2007 Suspect confessed that the code was obtained from an associate in Russia Was successfully prosecuted and convicted to 18 months imprisonment by a Nigerian High Court

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28 CASE STUDY 6- HOPE OLUSEGUN AROKE Suspect was arrested by EFCC operatives in December 2012 when he was holidaying in Lagos, Nigeria Three Laptops and two smart phones recovered which contains over 2000 email addresses and passwords of victims. Also found were wire transfer instructions sent from compromised email accounts for onward transfer to nominated accounts Suspect confessed that the code was obtained from an associate in a hackers forum in which he is an active member Was charged to Court and trial is ongoing in a Nigerian High Court

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30 HOPE OLUSEGUN

31 CASE STUDY 7: NOSAKHARE PETER IYEN A Nigerian graduate of Computer Science registered with the - “Association of the Advancement of Criminal Activity” also known as Theft Services Uses screen name in the carder portal and has wide number of contacts within the criminal circle Posts his exploits and specialization on the Internet Suspect sent fake cheques to American victim who remitted the value of the cheques through Western Union to Nosa in Benin City and Lagos respectively EFCC in conjunction with undercover investigators of the USPIS arrested the suspect in Lagos. Suspect convicted to 5 years imprisonment in May 2013 by the Federal High Court

32 CHALLENGES Inadequate public awareness on e-crimes and the vulnerabilities of e-payment system channels The cyberspace is virtually borderless and lawless. Access to internet is becoming easier and more affordable as the acquisition of criminal knowledge is easy on the Internet. Prosecutorial issues – evidence law interpretations, no cyber crime law, multiple jurisdictions etc Cyber security receives little attention in Nigeria despite an increasing dependence on ICT (no budget for Cybersecurity or awareness programme in most Government Agencies)

33 WAY FORWARD Enhanced Law enforcement and the Judiciary’s capacity to keep pace with advancing technologies A functional and law enforcement driven Nigerian Computer Incidence Response Team should be established to protect the public from attacks, respond to security incidents and collaborate with relevant local actors

34 CONCLUSION All indigenous traditional crimes now rely on technology in one way or the other in their conception, execution, laundering of proceeds and escape stagess Law Enforcement and the Judiciary must engage with each other to ensure that our overall national economic security and critical infrastructure is protected and not imperilled by the advancement of technology Current initiative to make Nigeria a modern cashless society may not be actualized if law enforcement and judiciary lack the legislation, capacity and technology to deal with related crime when they occur.


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