1 Organizational Capacity: Ensuring Successful Implementation in Value Chain Programs Alexandra Snelgrove, MEDATracy Gerstle, CAREThulasy Balasubramaniam, EWB
2 Sharing Our Experiences: Different Perspectives Panel OverviewIndustry ChallengesTesting Our CapacitySharing Our Experiences: Different PerspectivesTracy Gerstle, CAREAlexandra Snelgrove, MEDAThulasy Balasubramaniam, EWBConcluding RemarksQuestion and AnswerSlide one to four – Five minutes
3 Importance of Capacity Building Thousands of NGO staff have participated in market facilitation training…..Hundreds of Market Analyses and Value Chain Development Program Designs have been completed….And yet, there are still relatively few, large- scale, successful market development programs….
5 Industry ChallengesWorking as a facilitator necessitates a different capacity and starting point…Approach requires a unique staff mindset and expertiseFlexibility criticalDifferent program management and staffing models, operations, and budget requiredFamiliarity with business models and processesLonger time to achieve resultsHeightened emphasis on M&E and learning over life of programIdeas on a good graphic for this?Could be as simple as a project lifecycle, or perhaps a map showing two different potential routesComplex approach which requires broad range of technical capacities, resources and partnerships, and flexible implementation conditions.Working as a facilitator necessitates different starting pointsApproach is not necessarily intuitive; requires a unique staff mindset and expertiseVCD requires substantial technical resources (although not necessarily more project funding)Flexibility in the program approach is keyDifferent program management and staffing models, operations, and budget requiredLonger time to achieve resultsHeightened emphasis on M&E and learning over LOP
6 Testing Capacity Hypothesis behind the tool: Purpose: Activity: Initially developed for internal purposes to guide EWB’s investments.Practitioners could benefit from breaking down market facilitation into more tangible partsPurpose:Disaggregate components of market facilitationKnowledge/Understanding ( Know-What)Capacity ( Know- How)Offer starting point for conversation on organizational upgrading needs based on behaviours/evidenceActivity:We will walk through 2-3 dimensions of the toolFor each read the different practices/behaviours within each dimension – which behaviours/responses best reflect your organisation?Discuss with the individuals around you some of the challenges that you face in moving up to the next level? ( 5 minutes)Key insights? Comments to share?20 minutesExplain how the tool was built (from the bottom up) and for who (managers)Walk through the toolGet participants to self-assess using one part of the tool (probably management capacity or M&E systems)Get them to reflect with a neighborGet a couple people to share their thoughts on the toolClose by explaining the implications of being in each of the 4 quadrants
7 Where is your organisation? 20Sophisticated MF UnderstandingKnow-What5 questions to gauge knowledge/understanding:What is the problem?What is the outcome?What are the constraints?What is the intervention strategy?What is the role of org?Know-How5 key dimensions of org :Field Staff CapacityM&E SystemsManagement ApproachOrganisational CultureRelationships with DonorKnow-What the approach10Where is your organisation?Go through the 5 questions that help to frame the know-what and know howLower LH quadrant: may require some strategic re-think on what intervention strategy is and what might be required from organizational practices perspectiveUpper LH quadrant – thinking and approach is generally good, invest in capacity upgradingLRH quadrant – have not seen organisation at this level (any new lessons for us? )URH quadrant – good space to be in!Likely getting to the URH quadrant is an iterative processUnderline that it the observations have come from best practices in management and organisation. key point to emphasize is not that we say every organisation needs to be at a 4. However, lower scores have implications and tradeoffs on ability to implement a value chain approach.Conventional Agric Approach20LowHigh10Know-How – ability to implement approach
8 Sharing Our Experiences Mennonite Economic Development Associates
9 Building The Organizational Capacity of CARE in Market Development A Quantum Leap in the Fight Against PovertyTracy GerstleEconomic Development UnitSustainable Livelihoods Cluster15 minutes Slide 6 to 11
10 Points of Light in Market Development Approaches at CARE Ethiopia: PSNP-Plus$14 m USAIDBangladesh: Strengthening the Dairy Value Chain$5.25 m BMGFPeru: Portfolio of Programs: IADB, Wal-Mart, USDA: Horticulture and Small Livestock-Currently there are several flagship value chain programs within CARE, including the following:-Need to move from individual projects to consistent integration of a market development approach within country offices economic program portfolios and across CARE-Efforts to scale this work must address: quality of design and implementation, knowledge management and organizational learning, and impact-Level of expertise in MD in countries spans a spectrum from familiarity with the MD “lingo,”, but lack of understanding of what a market development approach implies in terms of program strategies and activities to a deep level of expertise-The Economic Development Unit seeks to in effect catalyze a “quantum leap” across CARE in our ED programs, bringing the MD approach from a few points of light within CARE to an organizational-wide sector of excellenceSierra Leone: Improving Child Well-Being Via Egg Value Chains$2.4 m USAIDZambia: ADAPT Agro-Dealer Project$3.05 m AGRA
11 Context for Scaling Market Development 70 Country Offices, Annual Budget $700 m+Decentralized Leadership, Program Management, & GovernanceWide Array of DonorsWide Array of Socioeconomic Contexts & Programming ApproachesEmpowered National Staff with Promotion Tracks to Senior ManagementCulture of Staff Development and Retention, Resulting in Strong Managers/Generalists-CARE’s strategy both for scaling MD within the org, as well as how we approach CB for staff, is based upon organizational context-As a result, some of the tactics we are employing may be specific to CARE. However, having worked for other large, multi-sectoral NGOs, e.g. Mercy Corps, World Vision, AED, Oxfam, and USAID both as a staffer and a consultant, would say our challenges are very similar. Therefore hope our strategy will bring lessons particularly for these organizations and others as well.-These Characteristics are both an Organizational Strength and a Challenge to Effecting Organizational-Wide Change
12 = x CARE MARKET ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY PROGRAM QUALITY Lift 10 million women, girls and their families out of poverty by promoting dignified employment*and sustainable incomes above the poverty line by 2015 through the development of agriculture and other value chainsPROGRAM QUALITYCARE has the organizational and staff capacity to undertake high quality, scalable value chain programsLEADERSHIP AND ADVOCACYCARE is recognized as leading the industry in learning and practice on employing the Value Chain approachwith an emphasis on gender equity and advocacy to lift poor women, girls and their families out of povertyORGANIZATIONAL LEARNINGCARE will develop the processes and resources needed to continually improve upon the quality andimpacts of its value chain programs by disseminating internal and external learning and innovation.VALUED PARTNER FOR THE PRIVATE SECTORCARE is the partner of choice for the private sector in partnerships to advocate poverty alleviation anddevelop more competitive value chains and inclusive business that engage very poor women and girls.RESOURCE MOBILIZATIONCARE leverages significant funding and other non-financial resources from major donors and partners to realizeinnovative, effective and scalable solutions to eradicate poverty via value chains.THEORY OF CHANGE-EDU Mandated by CARE USA to develop the strategy, working in close partnership with CARE UK-Walk through the five components and highlights of eachPoor women, girls and their families maintain increases in their incomes and quality of employments via participation in high value, well governed value chains.=Enhanced market and financial literacy and the ability to manage riskxValue added contributions to and benefits from market participationConducive policy and regulatory environment promoting inclusive, competitive marketsMISSIONEmpower women, girls and their families to maximize their economic potentialas producers, workers and consumers in higher value local, regional, and global markets.
13 Framework for Program Quality and Staff Capacity Global Capacity AnalysisBenchmarkingMonitoring & EvaluationSystemSupporting CARE’sStrategic Objectives on:Program QualityOrganizational LearningCommunity of PracticeM&EPeer-to-PeerLearningManagementFormalTrainingE-Learning Courses:Intro to Market DevValue Chain Analysis& Program DesignEmpowerment &GenderCommitment to MarketFacilitation Capacity Buildingin Country Office Annual PlansPartnership with HumanResourcesIndividual Staff DevelopmentPlans-Five components, closely integrated with the larger strategy and partnerships-Built upon recognition that training in market facilitation is not sufficient-Good MF requires a mind shift in how staff undertake ED programming-Systems approach-Favor indirect over direct methods-More analytics: Justify the business Case-Relationship Building, particularly with the PS-Not easily learned characteristics, particularly for “generalist development staffers”-To succeed requires more intensive and therefore longer terms means of workforce engagement, to achieve the required attitudinal and behavior changes-Work to build support, management systems, training and peer to peer assistance via a number of mechanismsLessons Learned from Access Africa and CARE’s Work to Strengthen and Scale its Work on Village Savings and Loans-First step was to undertake an organizational wide benchmarking of current activities in VS&L: to understand the methodologies used (and variations of), issues around quality, staff capacity etc. Conducted by Accenture Development Partners-Before: VS&L work scattered across CARE, high varying levels of quality, lack of consistent methodology, poor data on impact and limited knowledge sharingMentoringMarket FacilitationCoaching System
14 Furthering Sustainability: Enhancing VCD Capacity of Local Partners Alexandra SnelgroveProduction and Marketing LinkagesSlide 12 to 17 – 15 minutesMennonite Economic Development Associates
15 MEDA Pathways & Pursestrings - Pakistan Project goal - Integrate 16,000 rural, homebound women into lucrative value chainsFour value chains (dairy, seedlings, embellished fabric, and glass bangles) in four geographic areasComplementary Goal - Develop the capacity of local non-government organizations (NGOs) and community based organizations (CBOs)Four Key Facilitating Partners (KFPs) (three public organizations and one private sector firm)In a number of countries. MEDA has adopted model where local partners are direct implementers; MEDA provides capacity support. Using PAksitan as example to highlight how that actually translates on the ground.Brief intro to MEDA
16 Project Challenges Partner background = traditional NGO paradigm Business acumen and value chain skills are absentConflicting goals between departments (provider mentality)Skepticism towards the value chain approach throughout the organizationValue Chain Approach is a new approach in PakistanStaff turnover is high for some partnersTransferring training to field workersPartner background = traditional NGO paradigm with the exception of one private sector KFP.Organizations understand the gender component and the requirement to conduct activities in a culturally-sensitive fashion, business acumen and value chain skills are absent.Substantial reach in the rural communities means prevalent history of “provider” approachSkepticism towards the value chain approach throughout the organization. One or two champions in each partner. In some, absence of more than one champion to push approach.Value Chain Approach is a new approach in the country; very little exposure or resources; few success stories to highlight as “case study” or exampleStaff turnover is high for some partners.Conflicting demands from senior management – P&P project just one in larger portfolio; Senior Management not always allow time or resources requiredTransferring training to field workers; particularly level of understanding low of community facilitators; core project team of four participate in formal trainingFinding time to balance training and activities – need to show how concepts relate to workDon’t always understand the “why” behind training activities
17 MEDA’s ApproachSystem for action learning and knowledge dissemination operating as an iterative ‘learning loop’,
18 MEDA’s ApproachLearning by doing theme whereby KFPs are involved in each step of the project – from value chain analysis onwardThree elements of Capacity Building:Formal Class-room style TrainingMentoringCross-KFP learningRegular Training Needs Assessment-Varying size and varying capacities, yet all have a need and desire to adopt market-driven principles in their operations- Learning by doing theme whereby KFPs are involved in each step of the project – from value chain analysis and program design and onward.- This learning continuum will incorporate the latest global theoretical knowledge being localized, delivered and supplemented with grassroots innovations and practical challenges resulting from project implementation in diverse sub-sectors across Pakistan.- work extensively with the KFP throughout the life of the project sharing learning and expertise- Three elements of training:1. Formal Class-room style Training – Set core of concepts and cross-cutting issues; Comprehensive package of workshops, resource materials, trainings2. Mentoring – ongoing technical assistance and troubleshooting include regularly scheduled discussions and tours of value chain activities and businesses, as well as technical assistance services to KFPs who are experiencing obstacles or other issues in project development and implementation.3. Cross-KFP learning – e-discussions on critical issues that allow KFPs to share experiences and learn from each other.Regular Training Needs Assessment to ensure that the training is responding to the needs of the KFP
19 Initial Lessons Flexibility and dynamism in capacity program Regular training needs assessmentPackage of training tools and processesCross partner learningManage expectations of donor and partnersNot just skills upgrading; mindset shiftsBringing it back to the impact for the producersTraining designed to deliver generic knowledge on a core set of concepts, principles, terminology and processes; keep plan highly dynamic in nature to enable it to respond to needs and demands as they emerge and keep learning content responsive to ground realitiesHighlighting to team how intervening higher up value chain (i.e. not focusing all efforts at producer levels) impacts their workload and can help them effectively reach clients in a more efficient mannerStaff need to understand not just VCA principles in relation to VCA and PD, but be able to make “commercial” decision in the daily field decisions. Means not just formal training but mentoringIncluding field staff in all mentoring sessions, not just “core project staff”; information passed to field staff via core team is through too many channels.Ensuring staff can act on learnings and apply – key homework etc; When participating in formal or informal training it is important that partners understand how the topics relate to their work “right now” and provide key tools for applying new concepts/learnings in current activities; Give clear plan of how training plan is relevant to work and how can act upon itKeeping training relevant topics – ensure that consensus of all partners is fed into training plan. Where relevant develop specialized training for specific KFP needs.Give training agenda in advance – can prepareImportance of coaching – mentoring; just attending training alone is not going to help partners build VC capacity. It’s the day to day decisions where you see people fall back on “easy” way. Mentoring to help troubleshoot assists in this area.Cross Partner Learning – ensuring the discussion and learning is not one way (i.e. MEDA-Partners) but across KFPs as well. Lessons and experiences help partners think about new strategies for dealing with critical issues.Importance of regular Training Needs Assessment
20 Putting Market Facilitation into Practice: A View from the Field Engineers Without Borders CanadaThulasy BalasubramaniamAgriculture Value Chains TeamSlide 18 to 25 – 15 minutes
21 EWB Introduction to EWB Over 50 organisations in Africa on organisational capacityZambia, Malawi, Ghana, Burkina,Long term secondments to partner organisations to provide on-the-job supportDedicated support to over 15 organisations and companies in Zambia/Malawi for market linkagesWe’re learning.
23 EWB Range of Interventions Type 1: Service Delivery Type 2: Service Delivery & Market LinkagesType 3:Market Facilitation
24 Roles of Market facilitator EWBField Staff CapacityRoles of Market facilitatorAddress GapsSkillsCreate Behavior ChangeAttitude/JudgmentTrigger Mid-Set ShiftKnowledgeCommunicatorRelationship BuilderBusiness PersonCoachInnovatorFoundational Attitudes and Capacities
25 EWB M&E M&E as Reporting & Accountability Longer time frame Donors Reporting to donorsDonors1ManagementM&E as Knowledge ManagementCaptures informationOn-going and quick feedback loopsImprove decision makingAdjust interventionsSupports staff2Field FacilitatorsMarkets
26 EWB Management Approach Management Approach Donor Relationships M&E as a management toolField Facilitators CapacityOrganizational culture
27 EWBConclusionsField staff capacity development is an on-going processKnowledge management systems are required for:Sustained staff behaviour changeEffective implementationManagement approach is the driving force for organizational changeThis shift takes time and requires commitment and patience from managers and donors
28 Lessons in Staff Capacity and Organizational Change Understanding of organizational structures to identify key levers to effect and support changeAppreciate that shifting organizational culture is very difficultRooting a “learning culture” does not take place overnightCultivate a new identity for staff, e.g. “Business Advisors”Create incentives for desired behaviorsSenior Management buy-in critical since they set the toneRecognize what draws staff to a particular organizationChange in Values and Mindset needed at all levels: HQ, Country Leadership, Field StaffMake the vision tangible and relevant: Theory of Change/Causal PathwayCreate a tier M&E system: Management and Impact/ReportingCreate financial systems that are responsive to program and market demandsCreate HR systems that promote staff development in facilitation at all levels: e.g. Management, Field StaffRearward and Promote development of soft as well as technical skills in field staff, e.g. Analytics, Judgment, Relationship BuildingEnsuring appropriate criteria and salary scale for new hiresDevelop systems that support and encourage risk-taking and innovationKM as a tool for program management and building staff capacity Tools and systems that capture and share explicit and tacit knowledgeManagement can use KM as a tool to reinforce organizational cultureRegularly assess staff capacity and develop clear strategies to address identified gapsPromote learning at an organizational levelUnderstand that knowledge development happens in a variety of avenuesLearning programs need to include both technical skills (VCD principles etc) and commercial/business thinkingDevelop learning systems throughout organization HQ to field staffNeed to develop buy in of all program stakeholders: e.g. donors, target group, private sector, government, staff, management, other NGOsEnsure staff have capacity to build and develop partnerships at with the private sector and at different levelsBalanced Scorecard and other participatory benchmarking tools are a good resourceNeed to set expectations with donors on time periods needed for results: particularly in behavioral and attitudinal changeEquip staff with a elevator speech and other means of branding to explain new approach to partners, clients and othersOrganizational CultureManagement SystemsKnowledge ManagementPartnership RelationsTen minutes – Slide 26 to 27Organizational CultureNeed to identify and leverage key organizational structures to effect and support the change:E.g. Culture, Management, Human Resources, Governance, FinanceAppreciate that shifting organizational culture is the most difficult thing to doE.g., From direct service and training to working indirectly via a market systemUnderstand that rooting a “culture of learning” does not take place overnightCultivate a new identity or brand for staffE.g., Call field staff “Business Advisors”Create incentives for desired behaviorsE.g., “Miss the net award” to create safe space for failure and encourage learningManagers set the tone of organizational cultureE.g., Role modeling feedback, reinforcing vision, undertaking regular management reviewsRecognize what draws staff to a particular organization (might be counter to a business approach)“Mindset” change needs to happen from HQ to Country Directors to Field StaffManagement SystemsMake the vision tangible and relevantE.g., Pathway toolCreate a two tier M&E systemE.g., One for Reporting and Accountability, one for KMCreate financial systems that are responsive to market demandsE.g., Create systems for field staff to make strategic requests for funds and for those funds to be disbursed in a timely mannerCreate systems (within the HR function) that allow for on-going staff developmentE.g., On the job training, coaching, peer to peer learningHire and support managers that can manage an emergent strategyE.g., Managers who ask the right questions, who are adaptive, who are enablers, can deal with ambiguityEnsuring appropriate criteria (related to VCD and business) for new hiresDevelop systems that support and encourage risk-taking and innovationKnowledge Management and LearningKM should be linked to staff developmentE.g., Training should be based on what the market is demanding and thus should be on-goingRelevant indicatorsE.g., Measure market signals/behaviours vs activities completedTools and systems that capture and share explicit and tacit knowledgeE.g., Quantitative and qualitative reports, team meetingsCultivate analytical capacity of staffE.g., Ask field staff to always ask “Why?” 5 timesManagement can use KM as a tool to reinforce organizational cultureCapacity Assessment Tools with clear strategies to address identified gapsPromote learning at an organizational levelUnderstand that knowledge development happens in a variety of avenuesLearning programs need to include both technical skills (VCD principles etc) and commercial/business thinkingDevelop learning systems throughout organization – HQ to field staffPartnership RelationshipsEnsure staff have capacity to build and develop partnerships with the private sectorDialogue with donor on time period for resultsEquip staff with a “message” to explain new approach to partners, clients, and others.
29 Questions For Discussion EWBQuestions For DiscussionHow do you operationalize a project with both service delivery and market facilitation components?To what extent can you shift an organization?Can the shift happen in a typical project timeframe (3 – 5 years)?What factors engender this shift?What can donors do to support this shift?What can we, as a community of practice, do to ease this shift?
30 Questions & Answers10 minutes with one minute wrap-up at end